Monday, October 8, 2012

veterinary online-Anatomical Directions & Anatomical Planes

Anatomical Directions & Anatomical


Anatomical Directions & Anatomical Planes 
Directional terms come in opposing pairs (like East/West and North/South). Anatomical directional terms are used to describe relative position consistently within a cadaver, independent of how the cadaver is oriented in the East/West, North/South world. 
Dorsal -- directed toward the back [head, trunk, tail]; also applied to manus & pes. 
Ventral -- dire
cted toward the belly [head, trunk, tail].

Medial -- directed toward the midline (median plane) [head, trunk, tail, & limbs].
Lateral -- directed away from the median plane, toward the flank [head, trunk, tail, & limbs].

Cranial -- directed toward the cranium (brain case) [trunk, tail, limbs].
Caudal -- directed toward the tail (& beyond) [head, trunk, tail, limbs].

Rostral -- directed toward the nose (beak) [head].
Caudal -- directed toward the tail (& beyond) [head, trunk, tail, limbs].

Proximal -- directed toward the body [limbs & tail].
Distal -- directed away from the body [limbs & tail].
Are used to describe cuts made through a cadaver in order to view structures exposed by the cuts. While a very large number of possible cuts could be made through a particular cadaver, three orthogonal (at right angles to one another) planes are most important. (Limbs are usually cut (transected) in only one plane, perpe
ndicular to their long axis.)

Dorsal Plane:A Dorsal Plane is parallel to the back [head, trunk, tail].

Transverse Plane:A Transverse Plane is perpendicular to the long axis of the body [head, trunk, tail].

Sagittal Plane:A Sagittal Plane divides the body into right/left parts [head, trunk, tail].

Median Plane:The Median Plane is a mid-sagittal plane that divides the body into left/right halves [head, trunk, tail].

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