veterinary online-Diseases and broken bones of animals
Diseases and broken bones of animals
Diseases and broken bones of animals
Causes disease and bone fractures may be closed and open mechanical damage, acute purulent inflammation is localized near the bone.
Peryostyt - inflammation of the periosteum. Acute peryostytah skin in the affected area is treated with a 5% alcohol solution of iodine injected hydrocortisone on 0.25 -0.5% solution of novocaine in the first 24 hours apply cooling bandages. With 2 days prescribed alcohol warming compresses or bandages alcohol, and 3-4-x make massage rezorbyruyuschyh liniment or ointment and heat wrap the affected area. An effective method is physiotherapy daily use paraffin or ozokerytovyh dressings. If pererazdrazhenyya skin rubbing on the area better put a bandage with liniment Vishnevsky.
In introducing peryostytah to education subperiosteal abscess conduct comprehensive treatment. A good therapeutic effect make-novocaine blockade antybyotykovoy with the introduction of antibiotics, hydrocortisone, followed by applying spirtokamfornye or spirtoihtiolovye dressing or hot compress and a course of intensive antibiotic prescribed sulfanilamide preparations.
subperiosteal abscess burst, necrotic tissue and bone sequestration removed and conduct thorough curettage of the affected bone, then wipe the surface of the skin swab moistened with alcohol, ether, sprinkle one with complex antiseptic powder and bandage with liniment Vishnevsky.
In the treatment of chronic periostitis use tools that cause acute inflammation and resorption of fibrous connective tissue in the affected area. When fibrous and formed Osyfikuyuchyy peryostyte conduct spot cautery followed by rubbing ointments that aggravate inflammation. For resorption of fibrous tissue successfully used pirogenal or tissue therapy. These tools are useful and when osteophytes and exostoses (bone formation). Effective use of ultrasound.
osteitis - inflammation of bone - as an independent disease is rare. Typically, the inflammatory process involved almost all the elements of bone: periosteum, bone, endosteum and bone marrow.
In osteitis fault area is saturated alcoholic solution of iodine. To reduce exudation in the first day prescribed cold and oppressive. Further, as the disappearance of acute inflammation to accelerate resorption of fluid using heat treatments in a warming compresses and condenses under osteitis - paraffin and ozokeritotherapy for deep heating.
Necrosis - necrosis of bone that occurs when purulent | inflammatory processes in the different layers of bone (purulent peryostyte, osteomyelitis), mechanical injuries (bruises, I concussions, fractures), physical (frostbite, burns) and chemical influences. These factors lead to thrombosis of vessels that nourish the bone. Depending on the degree of damage can occur necrosis complete or total when omertvevaet whole bone or most of it, and incomplete or partial when the affected part of the bone. In addition, the localization of bone necrosis can be superficial (cortical) nekrotyzuyetsya outer surface of bone, and the central (deep) which omertvevayut its deep layers. Treatment should be prompt and sent to remove necrotic areas. Later prescribe a course of intensive antibiotic therapy by intraosseous injections.
Caries - limited grained molecular breakdown of bone formation on the surface of the bone defect (bone ulcers). Treatment is mainly surgical, aimed at autopsy fistulous passages, removing dead tissue and to ensure a good flow of fluid. Then apply antiseptic drugs mouthwashes.
Osteomyelitis - inflammation of the bone marrow, endosteum, periosteum and compact substance.There aseptic osteomyelitis and infectious. The clinical course they are acute and chronic. Factor is bone injury, exhaustion, cooling, vitamin deficiency and severe contagious disease that reduces bone marrow resistance and resistance infection. The main causes of suppurative osteomyelitis are open fractures, penetrating to the bone infected wounds, festering Periostitis.
In the initial stage of osteomyelitis intraosseous (in the bone marrow canal) injected Novocain, antibiotics in N. Yelanskomu against previously provided lrotivosepticheskoy therapy. Needle with mandrenom or sleeve with stylet left in the bone marrow cavity and vbintovyvayut in a bandage in order to perform these injections of 1 - 2 times a day. In the presence of subperiosteal abscesses coming just as in peryostytah.
The formation intermuscular phlegmon them reveal, remove dead tissue, bone sequesters, stop bleeding, use complex aseptic powders and treats as if phlegmon. After easing acute inflammation conduct trepanation bones reveal bone marrow canal, remove diseased bone marrow, bone sequesters, carefully conducted curettage, wash the affected area of hydrogen peroxide, then alcohol-ether for 5 - 7 minutes and fill the cavity of the complex antiseptic powder containing iodoform and antibiotics. The surface of the wound is closed with a towel and put uhlehipsom bespodkladochnoy plaster cast or bandage with liniment Vishnevsky. Simultaneously, a course of intensive antibiotic therapy, actively using sulfanilamide preparations, vitamins, crystalline trypsin. Highly is intraosseous introduction to the damage area 5 - 10% solution yodoformennoho ether in a dose of 3 - 5 ml of 1 day a week. For treatment use 3 - 5 injections.
Fractures. Anyway fractures tubular or flat bones there is a gap of muscles, fascia, blood vessels, nerves, organs, and in open fractures damaged skin and other soft tissue. Fractures can be congenital or acquired, closed and open, complete and incomplete.
Types of fractures and osteosynthesis for fractures shown in Fig.
Rice. Types of complete fractures: a - cross, b - oblique C - longitudinal d - spiral, D - antipersonnel
Rice. Types of intra-articular fractures
Rice. Displacement of bone fragments in fractures: a - mismatch fragments b - a shortening of the limbs, in - side, d - angular
Rice. Metal osteosynthesis in fractures of the femur (a) and shoulder (b) bone
First aid is to create an animal of peace, stop bleeding, imposing temporary Immobilizing bandages.Treatment depends on the nature and location of the fracture, bone structure, state of mineral metabolism and resistance of the pet. When choosing a method of treatment of fractures is necessary to reposition displaced fragments, immobilization of the fragments in the right position to ensure the conditions of regeneration and stimulation of healing of fractures.
When conservative (non-operational) treatment of closed fractures should ensure reposition displaced fragments, immobilization them in the correct position and create good conditions for regeneration and stimulation of healing of fractures. When reposition of fragments should be aware that in old cases vpravyty them very hard, so you need to provide as much muscle relaxation. To do this, use anesthesia and local anesthesia.
When surgical treatment of fractures connecting fragments (osteosynthesis) bloody way. For these purposes, use catgut, silk, nylon, metal clips, pins, metal, plastic, wood, bone and polymer.
most common ways to immobilize the damaged bones have recently been intramedullary osteosynthesis metal and absorbable polymeric pins, overlay clips, plates and screws. The operation takes only a veterinarian.
The operation was carried out under a combined or local anesthesia. For local anesthesia ynfyltryruyut skin 0.25% solution of novocaine, and soft tissue and bone marrow - 2% solution of novocaine at 30% solution of alcohol. For immobilization and general anesthesia is used rompun, chlorpromazine, kombelen, hipertal, depridol and other alcohol-novocaine in the bone marrow canal should be administered by the fracture.