Friday, March 1, 2013

urinary stones disease cats and dog, Urolithiasis in animal


educated urinary stones in kidney tissue, pelvis, bladder or his detention in the lumen of the ureter, urethra. Education urolytov ceased to be subject to the result of disorders that contribute pretsypytatsyy crystals in the urine.
Dogs Urinary Symptoms urinary stones disease


The clinical picture of the disease depends on staying urinary stones, their size, surface condition and is podvyzhnosty.
The main symptoms of urinary stones is pain and hematuria. Pain may be constant and sometimes manifested by sharp attacks of colic. Urination frequent and painful. In Education stone in renal pelvis symptoms characteristic for pielita and subsequent pyelonephritis.
At this time, the disease may increase body is 0.5 - 1.00 C. In urine too many inorganic precipitation, protein, leukocytes, epithelium of the renal pelvis, microorganisms. Appears frequent painful urination, prerыvaemoe false pozыvamy.
When occlusion urinary tract disease manifests classic triad of symptoms: urinary colics, violation of the act of urination and changes in the composition of urine. May cause rupture of the bladder, peritonitis and death at 2-3 days after obturation.


Dogs and cats often obsleduyutsya through displays signs of diseases of the lower urinary tract, including hematuria, dysuria, pollakyuryyu, incontinence and inappropriate urination. Review data received from the Veterinary Medical Data Base between 1980 and 1995, found that the prevalence of diseases of the lower urinary tract in dogs was 3.0% in cats between 1980 and 1990 the prevalence of diseases of the lower urinary tract was 7.3.% These diseases are more common in dogs older than 4 years, and cats from the first year to 10 years.


 urinary stones disease 
Not yet understood. It is believed that the formation of urinary stones in most cases caused by a violation of the regulation of salt metabolism of the central nervous system due to improper, uniform feeding, hypo-and hyperavytamynozov.
One of the leading factors of urinary stones education - a violation of the basic relationship between acid equivalents feed. In the formation of stones in dogs and cats play an important role microorganisms (staphylococci, streptococci, Proteus)
Kamneobrazovanye often caused by the use of various medicinal substances.
On the other hand, are important in the formation of stones is excessive use of feeds rich in phosphates. Factors kamneobrazovanyya are long periodic stagnation of urine alkalinization followed her, the precipitation of salts and the formation of concretions.
Factors that complicate the course of the disease may be relatively small diameter of the urethra in cats, especially castrated at an early age.
Impaction, mucosal lesions of urinary stones accompanied by stagnation of urine penetration into the urinary tract ascending line of secondary infection, resulting in growing catarrhal-purulent inflammation of the bladder (urotsystyt), renal pelvis and kidney (pyelonephritis). Animals dying from uremia (obstruction of the urethra).
Over the last 15-20 years, the frequency struvytnoho urolytyaza decreased, and the frequency oxalate urolytyaza uvelychylas.


male and female urogenital system urinary stones disease
Education urolytov calcium oxalate occurs when urine is supersaturated with calcium oxalate i. Additional risk factors for education is urolytov breed, sex, age and diet. Once forming urolyta once started, the focus must remain in the urinary tract, and conditions should facilitate further pretsypytatsyy minerals and growth urolytov. So, for formyroanyya calcium oxalate urine calcium must be peresыschena i oxalic acid (atsyduryya). Abnormalities in the balance between the concentration in urine kalkulohennыh substances (calcium and oxalic acid) and inhibitors of crystallization (including citrate, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and / or potassium) associated with the initiation and growth urolytov calcium oxalate. In addition to these violations activity of ions, proteins with high molecular weight, which in urine, such as nefrokaltsyn, uropontyn and mukoproteiny have influence on the formation of calcium oxalate. The role of these macromolecular inhibitors and ionic calcium oxalate formation has not been studied in cats.

Etiological risk factors


Hypercalciuria is assumed as a risk factor, but not necessarily the cause of education urolytov calcium oxalate in cats. It may be the result of excessive calcium absorption in the intestines, impaired renal reabsorption of calcium and / or excessive mobilization of calcium from the intestine (rezorbtyvnaya).Consumption cats diet enriched zakyslytelem urine ammonium chloride associated with increased excretion of calcium through metabolic acidosis.Metabolic acidosis promotes bone reorganization (the release of calcium from bone as a buffer) and increasing the concentration of ionized calcium in the blood, which leads to increased urinary calcium excretion and decreased tubular reabsorption of calcium. Although excessive calcium intake may lead to hypercalciuria, human studies have refuted this fact.


Increased excretion of oxalic acid in the urine may lead to formation of calcium oxalate. Hyperoksaluryya was found in cats who consume a diet deficient in vitamin B6, and in the group of cats with reduced number of hepatic D-hlytserat dehydrogenase.


Urine is a solution that contains many substances that may inhibit or promote the formation and growth of crystals. Some inhibitors, such as citrate, magnesium and pyrophosphate to form soluble salts with calcium or oxalic acid, thus reducing the availability of calcium or oxalic acid pretsypytatsyy.Other inhibitors are makromolekulyarnыmy proteins, such as Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and nefrokaltsyn that affect the ability of calcium and oxalic acid combined, thereby minimizing the formation and growth of crystals. Other substances may promote urinary calcium oxalate. The role of any of these inhibitors and promoters has been investigated thoroughly.

Performance risk urolytyaza

Dogs Urinary Symptoms urinary stones disease
Relative supernasыschenye (BSP), also called the work activity of the product, the mathematical term used to describe the concentration of minerals in the urine and the amount of energy available for education urolytov. Other factors influencing the level of relative supernasыschenyya are: urine pH, temperature and ionic strength. One of the most important factors determining the concentration of minerals - a volume of urine. Well hydrated diet promotes the formation of a separated urine, which causes the relative supernasыschenyya less than 1, although the content of minerals. Indeed, one of the most affordable ways to reduce the risk urolytyaza in cats just increased water consumption. Studies have shown that cats eat canned food, produce more urine volume (and therefore more diluted urine) than animals eat dry food.Many companies that produce therapeutic diets claim that the level of BSP less than 1 indicates that the urine or form crystals or stones. Indeed, the level of BSP less than 1 indicates that the urine nenasыschennaya and the likelihood of small stones. Canned diets of many companies is a lot of moisture, so that the animal consumes a high amount of water, because cats should consume plenty of water to ensure the flow of energy processes. However, it turns out that the buyer pays mostly water.


Reflects whether BSP tendency to form urolytov? One indicator BSP can not adequately describe the tendency to feed or protect education in formation of crystals in the urine. BSP does not consider the contribution of inhibitors and substances that contribute to the formation of stones (promoterov) in this process in animal urine. Because of this, many scientists use index, known as the ratio of activity product (PDA), which assesses the contribution of diet in the tendency to form stones in the urine. Hill `s paraphrased the rate on the index risk kamneobrazovanyya (IGC) and" uses in its research and production diets.
PDA took a step further than in BSP as take into account the role of inhibitors and promoterov on krystalyzatsyyu in urine. PDA determines the attitude of BSP before and after incubation of urine with precipitant. Using this figure, we can reliably throw in case crystals tend to further krystalyzatsyy and where to dissolving in each urine sample. And this really true definition of slash!
Levels of BSP and PDA is not always the only indications of risk education crystals in some urine. For example, people have a pretty high rate of BSP for calcium oxalate, but in all these rocks formed. At the same time, urine with low levels of BSP (
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