urinary stones disease cats and dog, Urolithiasis in animal
educated urinary stones in kidney tissue, pelvis, bladder or his detention in the lumen of the ureter, urethra. Education urolytov ceased to be subject to the result of disorders that contribute pretsypytatsyy crystals in the urine.
|Dogs Urinary Symptoms urinary stones disease|
The main symptoms of urinary stones is pain and hematuria. Pain may be constant and sometimes manifested by sharp attacks of colic. Urination frequent and painful. In Education stone in renal pelvis symptoms characteristic for pielita and subsequent pyelonephritis.
At this time, the disease may increase body is 0.5 - 1.00 C. In urine too many inorganic precipitation, protein, leukocytes, epithelium of the renal pelvis, microorganisms. Appears frequent painful urination, prerыvaemoe false pozыvamy.
When occlusion urinary tract disease manifests classic triad of symptoms: urinary colics, violation of the act of urination and changes in the composition of urine. May cause rupture of the bladder, peritonitis and death at 2-3 days after obturation.
PrevalenceDogs and cats often obsleduyutsya through displays signs of diseases of the lower urinary tract, including hematuria, dysuria, pollakyuryyu, incontinence and inappropriate urination. Review data received from the Veterinary Medical Data Base between 1980 and 1995, found that the prevalence of diseases of the lower urinary tract in dogs was 3.0% in cats between 1980 and 1990 the prevalence of diseases of the lower urinary tract was 7.3.% These diseases are more common in dogs older than 4 years, and cats from the first year to 10 years.
urinary stones disease
One of the leading factors of urinary stones education - a violation of the basic relationship between acid equivalents feed. In the formation of stones in dogs and cats play an important role microorganisms (staphylococci, streptococci, Proteus)
Kamneobrazovanye often caused by the use of various medicinal substances.
On the other hand, are important in the formation of stones is excessive use of feeds rich in phosphates. Factors kamneobrazovanyya are long periodic stagnation of urine alkalinization followed her, the precipitation of salts and the formation of concretions.
Factors that complicate the course of the disease may be relatively small diameter of the urethra in cats, especially castrated at an early age.
Impaction, mucosal lesions of urinary stones accompanied by stagnation of urine penetration into the urinary tract ascending line of secondary infection, resulting in growing catarrhal-purulent inflammation of the bladder (urotsystyt), renal pelvis and kidney (pyelonephritis). Animals dying from uremia (obstruction of the urethra).
Over the last 15-20 years, the frequency struvytnoho urolytyaza decreased, and the frequency oxalate urolytyaza uvelychylas.
|male and female urogenital system urinary stones disease|
Etiological risk factors
HypercalciuriaHypercalciuria is assumed as a risk factor, but not necessarily the cause of education urolytov calcium oxalate in cats. It may be the result of excessive calcium absorption in the intestines, impaired renal reabsorption of calcium and / or excessive mobilization of calcium from the intestine (rezorbtyvnaya).Consumption cats diet enriched zakyslytelem urine ammonium chloride associated with increased excretion of calcium through metabolic acidosis.Metabolic acidosis promotes bone reorganization (the release of calcium from bone as a buffer) and increasing the concentration of ionized calcium in the blood, which leads to increased urinary calcium excretion and decreased tubular reabsorption of calcium. Although excessive calcium intake may lead to hypercalciuria, human studies have refuted this fact.
HYPEROKSALURYYAIncreased excretion of oxalic acid in the urine may lead to formation of calcium oxalate. Hyperoksaluryya was found in cats who consume a diet deficient in vitamin B6, and in the group of cats with reduced number of hepatic D-hlytserat dehydrogenase.
VIOLATION inhibitors and PROMOUTEROVUrine is a solution that contains many substances that may inhibit or promote the formation and growth of crystals. Some inhibitors, such as citrate, magnesium and pyrophosphate to form soluble salts with calcium or oxalic acid, thus reducing the availability of calcium or oxalic acid pretsypytatsyy.Other inhibitors are makromolekulyarnыmy proteins, such as Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and nefrokaltsyn that affect the ability of calcium and oxalic acid combined, thereby minimizing the formation and growth of crystals. Other substances may promote urinary calcium oxalate. The role of any of these inhibitors and promoters has been investigated thoroughly.
Performance risk urolytyaza
|Dogs Urinary Symptoms urinary stones disease|
BSP and PDAReflects whether BSP tendency to form urolytov? One indicator BSP can not adequately describe the tendency to feed or protect education in formation of crystals in the urine. BSP does not consider the contribution of inhibitors and substances that contribute to the formation of stones (promoterov) in this process in animal urine. Because of this, many scientists use index, known as the ratio of activity product (PDA), which assesses the contribution of diet in the tendency to form stones in the urine. Hill `s paraphrased the rate on the index risk kamneobrazovanyya (IGC) and" uses in its research and production diets.
PDA took a step further than in BSP as take into account the role of inhibitors and promoterov on krystalyzatsyyu in urine. PDA determines the attitude of BSP before and after incubation of urine with precipitant. Using this figure, we can reliably throw in case crystals tend to further krystalyzatsyy and where to dissolving in each urine sample. And this really true definition of slash!
Levels of BSP and PDA is not always the only indications of risk education crystals in some urine. For example, people have a pretty high rate of BSP for calcium oxalate, but in all these rocks formed. At the same time, urine with low levels of BSP (