Sunday, December 23, 2012

Sexual cycle in animals, reproductive cycles, Sexual reflexes

sexual cycle

it is a complex neurohumoral reflex process, characterized by a complex physiological and morphological changes in the genitals and around the female body from one stage of excitement to another (or from one estrus, hunting to another). In the sexual cycle, there are three phases: excitement, braking and balancing (for AP Studentsov).

Phase excitement

disorders characterized by a vivid manifestation of all sexual processes - estrus, sexual arousal, hunting and ovulation.


clear mucus discharge from the female genitals. Characterized by redness and swelling of the mucous membrane pereddver'ya vagina and vaginal portion of the cervix.

Sexual arousal (overall reaction)

 a change in the behavior of females pronounced reaction of the body in the form of anxiety, lyaklyvosti, refusal of food, sometimes aggressiveness, reduced milk yield and milk quality changes.

Sexual hunting

a positive sexual response of females to males is a manifestation of the female genital reflex (original behavior) in the presence of a male. The female tends to approach male assumes the pose for sexual intercourse, urinating frequently, she rhythmically reduced labia, she admits kindergarten and coitus. In animal sex hunt in females accurately determine male-probe (bull, stallion, ram, hryakom).


 a section of mature ovarian follicle and out of his egg. In cows, mares, pigs, sheep, goats and females ovulation occurs spontaneously, regardless of whether it was mating (insemination) with a male or not, although the act of mating accelerates ovulation. In rabbits and cats induce ovulation (induced), it occurs only after intercourse after 8 - 10 hours

Phase braking sexual cycle 

begins immediately after excitation stage (after ovulation): disappear signs of oestrus, sexual arousal and hunting female calms down, running away from the male, she renewed appetite and milk yield. In the ovary in place ovulyruyuschyy follicle forms the corpus luteum, which produces the pregnancy hormone - progesterone.

Phase balancing sexual cycle

 occurs after braking stage and is characterized by a female negative attitudes to male and no signs of arousal. In the ovary is functioning corpus luteum, follicle growth slowed. If you fertilize females (or skip hunt) pregnancy not occurred, this stage lasts until a new stage of the breach, and if the pregnancy occurred, then the end of it.Sexual cycle in females downstream may be complete, it appears estrus, sexual arousal, hunting and ovulation, and inferior when drops one or more attributes of the cycle.
Rhythm reproductive cycles (and their duty to) specific to each animal species. He polycyclic in cows, mares, pigs, sheep and goats (sheep and goats with severe sexual season - spring, autumn) monotsiklichnyy in wild animals (at home - some breeds of dogs and cats).

Rhythm reproductive cycles

 sequence and relationship of sexual traits (estrus, sexual arousal, hunting and ovulation) depend on the interaction between the nervous and humoral (endocrine) systems of the body females. The emergence and the sexual cycles regulate gonadotropic hormones and honadalnoho.The total duration of the sexual cycle is determined by the terms of formation and termination functions of the corpus luteum. Sexuality females - a complex reproductive cycles, ie every normal estrous cycle followed by fertilization, fertilization, pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. In old age, sexual function fade. Menopause occurs in cows 12-15 years, 15-18 years in mares in pigs in 6 - 8 years in sheep and goats in 6 - 8 years, in rabbits at 4-5 years in females and cats in 10-12 years.


estrous cycle lasts 18 - 21 days. After calving phase excitation is shown in 21 - 28 days (in some cows through 16-18 days). Period under excitation by an average of 3 - 5 days, estrous - 2 - 3 days of sexual arousal - 6 - 12 hours, hunting - 12 - 18 h Ovulation occurs 10-15 hours after the shooting.Duration braking stage 1 - 3 days equilibration stage - 6-14 days.


estrous cycle lasts 19 - 22 days, but can be 16 - 28 days.Estrus, sexual arousal coincide with hunting. After vyzherebki hunting mares manifested by an average of 8-10-day, and sometimes for 6 - 16 th and lasts an average of 5 - 7 days, depending mostly on their content, care, feeding, operation and season.


 sexual cycle lasts 18 - 21 days. After farrowing hunting can occur after 14-16 days, but often after weaning piglets in 4 - 7 days. Duration of estrus 2 - 3 days hunting -1-2 day. Ovulation occurs on day 2, after hunting and ends within 1 - 2 days.

 sheep and goats

 sexual cycle lasts 14 - 19 days. Duration of the stage of 2 - 5 days, oestrus -1-2 day hunt - 1 - 2 days. Ovulation occurs in 30 - 32 hours from the beginning of the hunt. After okotu (yahnenyya) reproductive cycle is restored after 15 - 30 days.


estrous cycle lasts 7 days. After okrolu manifested by 1 - 2-day. The sexual cycle of rabbits - a sort of sexual situation. Its suppose to males in any day of the sexual season. The sexual cycle is well expressed in the warmer months (May - August) and winter - during thaws. Duration of oestrus and hunting 3 - 5 days (in the ovaries is always ready to ovulate follicles). Ovulation in the rabbit occurs only after 8 to 12 hours after intercourse.

Sexual reflexes

divided into unconditioned (innate) and conditional (acquired during life). Their collection is sexual instinct (biological reproduction law), which manifests itself simultaneously with the sexual maturity of animals. By male sexual reflexes include sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, obnimatelnyy (or fixation on male males) sovokupytelnyy, ejaculation.

Sexual desire 

the desire to look for males and females chase in hunting.

Reflex erections 

changes in the reproductive organs of male before copulation. Thus there is increase in the size of the penis due to heavy filling it with blood, increasing its elasticity, and temperature sensitivity. All of these changes contribute to the introduction of the penis into the female genitals.

Obnimatelnyy reflex 

vskakivanie male to female and obhvatyvanie its sides forelimbs. Stallions and boars have a pronounced obnimatelnyy reflex, bulls and rams it appears weaker.

sovokupytelnyy reflex 

introduction of the penis into the vagina in females pushing movements males contributes to the perception receptors penile irritation of the mucous membrane of the vagina that causes ejaculation.

Reflex ejaculation 

 selection of sperm with the male genitalia, carried muscle contraction genitals,accompanied by a kind of general nervous excitement (orgasm). The females while hunting and during intercourse manifest the same reflexes (some specific to females) as in males. These reflexes contribute to sexual intercourse, insemination and fertilization.

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