The digestive apparatus of animals, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
Digestive apparatus a set of institutions guaranteeing the digestive process,feed conversion by physical and chemical treatment to a more simple nutrients that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body.Thus, the digestive organs perform the following functions: secretory (working digestive glands), motor (reception food, his mixing and promotion in the digestive tract), suction (performed mucous membrane and generates the blood water and nutrients split), secretory (emphasis Some metabolic products - pigments, urea, mineral and accidentally substances).
Anatomically digestive apparatus
|digestive system of cow, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal|
Alimentary canal lined inside mucosa pale pink. This layer has a different structure, due to the functional purpose of different parts of the channel. In the connective tissue on the mucosa in some lymphoid organs is education, serve a protective function, which may take the form of single follicles (in the jejunum), clusters of follicles - Peyyerovi plaques (in the ileum) or tonsils (component okolohlotochnoe lymphoid ring). In the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract in its entirety is the endocrine cells. Muscle membrane wall of the alimentary canal provides peristalsis and promote content. Submucosa and tunica muscularis abundantly provided with nerve endings that contribute to the regulation of all functional items.Alimentary canal origin is divided into primary and tulovyschnoy intestine (intestinal tube). The Main intestine include oral cavity and pharynx.
|oral cavity, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal|
According to the structure they are divided into dlinnokoronkovye (all teeth horse and cattle molars) and korotkokoronkovye (teeth carnivores, omnivores, cutters cattle) on location - on incisors (hooks, medium and loose), canines, premolars and molars, to change - for milk and permanent, in the form of chewing surfaces - on gears (in prey), lumpy (in omnivores) lunchatye (in cattle) and folded (in horses).Maximum number of teeth is in pigs - 44, dogs 42, 36-40 horses in cattle 32. A tooth consists of a modified bone - dentin, which is the protruding part of the tooth is covered with enamel, and the root of - cement. In the mouth opens three pairs of large zastinnyh glands: parotid, mandibular and sublingual that secrete saliva.
|cattle teeth, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal|
Saliva is composed of water, protein components and mineral salts in saliva and pigs are also enzymes (amylase and Maltase), break down starch. Salivation in animals is reflexively regulated and medulla oblongata.
|skull, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal|
pharynx is the tubular body in which the intersection of digestive and respiratory tracts. Thus pharynx associated with oral, nasal cavity, middle ear, larynx and esophagus. It includes two sections: respiratory (nasopharynx) and digestive (oropharynx).
tulovyschnaya intestine (intestinal tube) is divided into three sections: the front (esophagus and stomach), middle (small intestine) and posterior (thick intestine).
|Anatomically digestive apparatus of rabbit|
Stomach (gaster, ventriculus, stomachus) is an extension of the foregut. The stomach is divided into four parts: esophagus (devoid of glands), cardiac (at the confluence of the esophagus contains cardiac glands), fundus or bottom (contains fundic glands) and pyloric (place of transition of the stomach into the duodenum contains pylorycheskye gland). The development of the stomach underlying classification stomachs.
|Anatomically digestive apparatus of goat|
|Anatomically digestive apparatus of horse|
|intestine, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal|
Morphologically intestine is divided into narrowed and long thin section(duodenum, skinny and ileum) and less long and thick expanded Department (blind, colon and rectum).This division is on probation. In the small intestine there is further digestion of nutrients under the influence of intestinal, pancreatic juice and bile.Pancreatic juice and bile are allocated according pancreas and liver ducts that open into the duodenum.
the largest digestive gland, has equity structure.All kinds of animals can distinguish right and left lobe of the liver. In the right lobe in all animals (except horses, camels and reindeer) is located gallbladder - a reservoir for temporary storage of bile, because it produced more than needed for digestion.Equity structure of the liver is most pronounced in dogs and pigs, and the least - in cattle. The liver makes bile ducts system, which opens into the duodenum .
|liver, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal|
|The digestive apparatus of animals|
(intestinum duodenum) in all animals located in the right upper quadrant, which is adjacent to the liver, and followed to the level of the right kidney and at about mid-back passes from right to left and back to the liver.
(intestinum jejunum) in pigs and dogs is the ventral part of the abdominal cavity (the xiphoid cartilage, umbilical region, partly pubic, hypochondrium, podvzdohi and pahy). In cattle it is the right of these areas. Horses placed in the left podvzdohe between dorsal and ventral provisions large colon.
(intestinum ileum) in all animals placed in the right podvzdohe and goes from left to right podvzdoha.
|large intestine, The digestive apparatus of animals|
(intestinum colon) in dogs is part dorsalnuyu both podvzdohov. Pigs form a cone, the base of which lies in the left podvzdohe and leadership in adult animals in the umbilical region, and the piglets to six months of age in the xiphoid cartilage. In cattle drive (labyrinth) of the colon is the right podvzdohe.In the horse it is a large colon in a double horseshoe (takes both podvzdoha, hypochondrium and the xiphoid cartilage, partly groin) and small colon, which lies with small loops (in the left podvzdohe and between the provisions of a large colon).
(intestinum rectum) in all animals located in the pelvic cavity in the vertebral column.