Wednesday, February 13, 2013

The digestive apparatus of animals, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal

Digestive apparatus a set of institutions guaranteeing the digestive process,feed conversion by physical and chemical treatment to a more simple nutrients that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body.Thus, the digestive organs perform the following functions: secretory (working digestive glands), motor (reception food, his mixing and promotion in the digestive tract), suction (performed mucous membrane and generates the blood water and nutrients split), secretory (emphasis Some metabolic products - pigments, urea, mineral and accidentally substances).

Anatomically digestive apparatus

digestive system of cow,  Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
Anatomically digestive apparatus is divided into the digestive canal (canalis alimentarius) and cancer (glandulae), located outside the channel (zastinni gland). Some parts of the alimentary canal wall containing glandular formation (parietal gland).
Alimentary canal lined inside mucosa pale pink. This layer has a different structure, due to the functional purpose of different parts of the channel. In the connective tissue on the mucosa in some lymphoid organs is education, serve a protective function, which may take the form of single follicles (in the jejunum), clusters of follicles - Peyyerovi plaques (in the ileum) or tonsils (component okolohlotochnoe lymphoid ring). In the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract in its entirety is the endocrine cells. Muscle membrane wall of the alimentary canal provides peristalsis and promote content. Submucosa and tunica muscularis abundantly provided with nerve endings that contribute to the regulation of all functional items.Alimentary canal origin is divided into primary and tulovyschnoy intestine (intestinal tube). The Main intestine include oral cavity and pharynx.

Oral cavity 

oral cavity,  Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
(cavum oris) is a complex organ that includes the lips, cheeks, hard and soft palate, tongue (the mucosa contains mechanical and gustatory papillae and a muscular system), gums and teeth Teeth are highly species diversity.
According to the structure they are divided into dlinnokoronkovye (all teeth horse and cattle molars) and korotkokoronkovye (teeth carnivores, omnivores, cutters cattle) on location - on incisors (hooks, medium and loose), canines, premolars and molars, to change - for milk and permanent, in the form of chewing surfaces - on gears (in prey), lumpy (in omnivores) lunchatye (in cattle) and folded (in horses).Maximum number of teeth is in pigs - 44, dogs 42, 36-40 horses in cattle 32. A tooth consists of a modified bone - dentin, which is the protruding part of the tooth is covered with enamel, and the root of - cement. In the mouth opens three pairs of large zastinnyh glands: parotid, mandibular and sublingual that secrete saliva.
cattle teeth, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal


Saliva is composed of water, protein components and mineral salts in saliva and pigs are also enzymes (amylase and Maltase), break down starch. Salivation in animals is reflexively regulated and medulla oblongata.
skull, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal


pharynx is the tubular body in which the intersection of digestive and respiratory tracts. Thus pharynx associated with oral, nasal cavity, middle ear, larynx and esophagus. It includes two sections: respiratory (nasopharynx) and digestive (oropharynx).
tulovyschnaya intestine (intestinal tube) is divided into three sections: the front (esophagus and stomach), middle (small intestine) and posterior (thick intestine).


Anatomically digestive apparatus of rabbit
(oesophagus) is a body for the promotion of food in the stomach and consists of three parts: cervical, thoracic and abdominal. The esophagus passes through the diaphragm in the plane IX edges (the horses - XII).


Stomach (gaster, ventriculus, stomachus) is an extension of the foregut. The stomach is divided into four parts: esophagus (devoid of glands), cardiac (at the confluence of the esophagus contains cardiac glands), fundus or bottom (contains fundic glands) and pyloric (place of transition of the stomach into the duodenum contains pylorycheskye gland). The development of the stomach underlying classification stomachs.
Anatomically digestive apparatus of goat
In dogs esophageal part of the stomach is not developed (intestinal type stomach), stomach is left hypochondrium (IX-XII rib) and the xiphoid cartilage. Pigs esophageal part of the stomach is negligible (stomach esophageal-intestinal type). Appears stomach in the left upper quadrant (XI-XII rib) and in the xiphoid cartilage. Horses stomach esophageal-intestinal type, esophageal portion is well developed and forms a blind sac (XIV-XV rib), located in the left upper quadrant stomach.In cattle stomach multichamber esophageal-intestinal type. Esophageal forms part three of the four divisions multichamber stomach: rumen (rumen), which is located to the left of VI rib to enter the pelvic cavity, net (reticulum) - lies in the xiphoid cartilage in the plane VI-VII ribs; book (omasum) - is in the right upper quadrant in the plane VII-IX edges 
Anatomically digestive apparatus of horse 
From the esophagus, which empties into a scar in his vestibule, the book goes trough mesh (esophageal groove), he goes on the grid right and partially reduced with age. This trough is involved in the processes of chewing, belching and reception of milk in the calf. Fourth Department multichamber stomach of cattle called rennet (abomasum). He is the true stomach that contains cancer, and is in the xiphoid cartilage right in the plane XI-XII ribs. In adult animals, the largest department multichamber stomach is scar less - according abomasum, book and mesh. In small ruminants smallest division is not mesh, and a book. In young animals that feed on milk, abomasum size exceeds scar. The glandular portion of the stomach (cardiac, fundic and pyloric) identifies gastric juice. This liquid acid reaction, consisting of water, enzymes (pepsin, hastriksin, hymozyna and lipase), mineral salts and hydrochloric acid. Most enzymes involved in the breakdown of proteins, and lipase breaks down fats to glycerol and fatty acids. Gastric juice secreted in two phases: reflex (starts before feeding) and humoral (neurochemical, under the influence of chemical irritants formed during digestion: food digestion and hormones released by the stomach).


intestine, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
long digestive tube that exceeds the length of the body in cattle in 20 - 25 times in pigs 15 times in horses is 10-12 times, and carnivores in 3.5 - 5 times and therefore has petlystoy course. Colon has a number of adaptations that increase its surface area, which include mucosal folds, villi, covered kaemchatye epithelium and crypts.
Morphologically intestine is divided into narrowed and long thin section(duodenum, skinny and ileum) and less long and thick expanded Department (blind, colon and rectum).This division is on probation. In the small intestine there is further digestion of nutrients under the influence of intestinal, pancreatic juice and bile.Pancreatic juice and bile are allocated according pancreas and liver ducts that open into the duodenum.


the largest digestive gland, has equity structure.All kinds of animals can distinguish right and left lobe of the liver. In the right lobe in all animals (except horses, camels and reindeer) is located gallbladder - a reservoir for temporary storage of bile, because it produced more than needed for digestion.Equity structure of the liver is most pronounced in dogs and pigs, and the least - in cattle. The liver makes bile ducts system, which opens into the duodenum .
liver, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
The liver performs except the digestive barrier (protective) function, purifying blood deponyruyuschuyu function (it creates a supply of glycogen deposition occurs and blood), is involved in all kinds of metabolic processes of thermoregulation, and the embryonic period - and in the blood.Proteins are split trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase secreted by the pancreas and activated by enzymes of intestinal juice. Fats split lipase, and carbohydrates - Maltase, saharazoy and laktazoy (they are part of the intestinal juice). Bile, secreted by the liver, is involved in the emulsification of fats and thereby facilitates digestion. Secretion of these enzymes is influenced by neural and humoral regulation.Enormous role in humoral regulation belongs hormones secreted by the intestine. Small intestine provides not only the process of digestion (a huge role in this process is given wall digestion), but the process of absorption of nutrients. Parietal digestion contributes to the structure of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, which is represented kaemchatye epithelium.


The digestive apparatus of animals
the physiological process that occurs as a result of intense activity of the intestinal mucosa.The process of absorption is the result of filtering, diffusion and osmosis. Absorption helps reduce intestinal villi, which in this case act as a pump. In the large intestine there are absorption of water, the formation of feces and their allocation. The final section of thick section (rectum) ends with anal canal that opens the anus, which has two sphincter: exterior of the striated muscles of the inner and smooth.


(intestinum duodenum) in all animals located in the right upper quadrant, which is adjacent to the liver, and followed to the level of the right kidney and at about mid-back passes from right to left and back to the liver.


(intestinum jejunum) in pigs and dogs is the ventral part of the abdominal cavity (the xiphoid cartilage, umbilical region, partly pubic, hypochondrium, podvzdohi and pahy). In cattle it is the right of these areas. Horses placed in the left podvzdohe between dorsal and ventral provisions large colon.


(intestinum ileum) in all animals placed in the right podvzdohe and goes from left to right podvzdoha.


large intestine, The digestive apparatus of animals
(intestinum caecum) in dogs is in the lumbar region (II-IV lumbar vertebrae) in cattle guts reason lies right in the lumbar region and podvzdohe and the tip pointing towards the pelvis. In pigs reason cecum is located on the left in the lumbar region, the tip pointing towards the pelvis. In the horse cecum attains a large size and consists of the head (in the right podvzdohe), the body (in the groin and upper quadrant) and the top (in the xiphoid cartilage).


(intestinum colon) in dogs is part dorsalnuyu both podvzdohov. Pigs form a cone, the base of which lies in the left podvzdohe and leadership in adult animals in the umbilical region, and the piglets to six months of age in the xiphoid cartilage. In cattle drive (labyrinth) of the colon is the right podvzdohe.In the horse it is a large colon in a double horseshoe (takes both podvzdoha, hypochondrium and the xiphoid cartilage, partly groin) and small colon, which lies with small loops (in the left podvzdohe and between the provisions of a large colon).


(intestinum rectum) in all animals located in the pelvic cavity in the vertebral column.


liver, The digestive apparatus of animals
lies in the right upper quadrant, without going beyond the last rib. In all animals, except pigs in contact with the right kidney. In horses, pigs and dogs goes to the left hypochondrium.
Copyright © 2014 veterinary online All Right Reserved