Thursday, March 28, 2013

Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world

Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world 
Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world 

Reserves have a very long time. At the dawn of the history of human society existed "sacred" places where hunting is banned, fish catching and logging where animals, birds and fish could safely withdraw offspring. In those days, when hunting and fishing were the most important, and often the only source human existence, from the conservation of protected sites intact well-being depended on, and sometimes just life.
Later, in the era of feudalism, the preserves largely lost its original meaning. In most countries in Europe, Asia and Africa, they have to serve the interests of the rulers or of the church and began to reserves, which protected only certain types of animals. There were many sanctuaries in ancient India, China and Egypt. In the Middle Ages in our country were "custom location "- Bialowieza Forest, where bison protected, and" Seven Islands "in the Murmansk coast, where the protected nesting hunting falcons for the royal hunt.
With the development of capitalism grew indiscriminate deforestation, animals, birds,fish - all natural resources that could bring money. Especially savagely exterminated them in the conquered countries and colonies. Yes, with unprecedented brutality colonizers destroyed the bison in America, elephants, rhinos and antelope in Africa and Asia. One hundred years ago disappeared most forests in Europe were exterminated many species of large animals and birds. This general impoverishment of nature has alarmed scientists, progressive community and government leaders. The emerging movement for the protection of nature. To keep animals in many countries were organized reserves.
One of the first among them was Yellowstone National Park in North America (1872). Behind him were the national parks in Europe, hunting reserves in Asia and Africa, reserves in Russia. Organization of protected areas affect the interests of private landowners, because it was carried out with great difficulty. In Tsarist Russia before the revolution was only a few reserves, mostly private. In capitalist countries, this reason makes their organization now. Often reserves owned by private individuals, companies 
Antelopes in the reserve Vars-Kelmes (Kazakh SSR), Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world  
or associations, and the creation of national parks sometimes pursued aim to get as much profit from tourists.In our country, the ratio of reserves to the radically changed only after the October Revolution, which abolished private ownership of land. Before the reserves were set and new, wider task. At first regulations and decrees, signed by Lenin, they say, that the reserves - national treasure designed exclusively for solving scientific and technical problems.The main objective of reserves - preserving samples (models) typical or rare areas of nature with all kinds of plants and animals that inhabit them. The nature reserve all kinds without exception as part of the natural complex of natural and precious gene pool: create it again impossible, but it can be very fit man. In fact, using the genetic features previously "useless" species, managed to get gigantic colossi Mexican wheat varieties viroustoychivye, beautiful Dutch tulips, etc. More recently, poisonous snakes considered definitely harmful, and now their guard to get the poison that treats people from many ailments. Even mold become a powerful tool in modern medicine they give us antibiotics. Who will undertake to predict what other organisms considered harmful today will not continue to be a source of health or human welfare?
Reserves in our country, as in other countries reserves and national parks, organized primarily where there still remained a rare and valuable species of animals, birds, other animals or plants. Yes, Voronezh Reserve was organized to protect one of the last settlements beavers, has more than 20 animals. Only 10 years beavers colonized all suitable places in the reserve, and settled outside the protected area. In subsequent years, nearly 3 thousand beavers from Voronezh Reserve were imported and released in 26 regions of the USSR.By the time of Barguzin reserve at lake there lived no more than 20-30 sables that hiding from hunters to reach stony placers. sable After 15 years, occupied the whole protected taiga, about 150 animals per year began to leave its borders and spread to Transbaikalia. In years preceding the organization Astrakhan Nature Reserve in the Volga delta, egrets, pelicans and gray geese were almost completely destroyed. There 
are thousand, nest in trees, countless islands and sandy shallows.
In Lapland tundra on the Kola Peninsula, remained little more than 100 wild reindeer. In our time in Lapland preserve their more 20 thousand livestock Caucasian mountain goats - Tours in the Caucasus Reserve has increased 12-fold, Caucasian deer - 20 times, recovered 
almost extinct bison, etc.
The colony of Black headed gull, Reserve Barca-Kelmes, Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world  
Ussuri tiger survived thanks mainly Sikhote-Alynskomu reserve in the Far East, Asiatic wild ass (wild ass) - Badhyz-sky reserve in Turkmenistan, Bukhara (Tugay-tion) deer - Reserve Tajikistan. Tens of millions of wintering ducks, swans, geese and other waterfowl birds find refuge in the reserves of the Caspian Sea. Recall and the protected groves of yew, boxwood, original nut forests of Tien Shan, pistachio forests of Turkmenistan and many other rare plants and certain types of plants, preserved by the reserve.
Similar values ​​have reserves and national parks abroad. Yes, thanks to Yellowstone National Park in the U.S. and a huge national park Wood Buffalo in Canada managed to keep buffalo. These rare and rare animals like rhinoceros and Indian latnaya deer barasinha, preserved mainly in the Kaziranga National Park in India. The latest in the world of Asian lions live only in the Mountain Forest Reserve (India). Nowhere is there more Javanese rhinoceros also reserve Udzhunh Pendant-west of the island of Java in Indonesia. Famous national parks and reserves in Africa (Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Tsavo, Murchison Falls, Kruger and others) owe their existence elephants, hippos, giraffes, zebras and countless antelope. Special reserves protect great apes: gorillas and chimpanzees - in Africa and orangutan in Asia.
Feature reserves the USSR is that they not only protect animals and plants and reduced the number of rare ones: reserves in our country - a scientific institution. What and how to learn in the reserves? Botanists, zoologists, geographers, foresters, soil scientists and other specialties for many years exploring the laws that govern the life of natural systems (biogeocoenoses ecosystems) in protected areas. It allows to evaluate the effects of human activities on the adjacent reserve areas. Such studies answer the question: how fuller and better use of the natural wealth of a landscape? To address this complex issue is taken into account the number of animals might cause, determine the value of the harvest of wild plants, finally, a detailed study ecology of individual species of animals and plants.

Vizon, National Park Wood Buffalo (Canada), Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world    
It was in the reserves found out what feeds sable and how much to feed him when he multiplies as sable survives for a year as sable tied to a particular area ^ etc. On the basis 
of these data recovery techniques have been developed number of valuable fur-bearing animals and based standards hunting for him. In the reserves were developed scientific methods of recovery of elk, antelope and other animals and the ways of their rational use. Here we study how to restore pine forests, biological control measures of pests and other issues of rational use of natural resources. therefore, reserves are laboratories for the protection of nature.
Kulan, Reserve Badhyz (Turkmen SSR), Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world  
In the Soviet Union on January 1, 1972 was 92 reserve total area of more than 7 million hectares. Often one reserve is 30-70 hectares, but the area of Altai, Baikal and Pechora-Ilychskoho reserves - by 700-800 thousand hectares. The number of reserves from year to year. In addition to reserves in the Soviet Union long existed sanctuaries. Here a number of years in certain seasons or year-round protected by certain types of animals or plants, and the remaining natural resources, such as forests or grasslands, use restricted. Often reserves are established in areas of spawning fish, breeding or wintering birds, etc. In the USSR, about 2 thousand of these reserves for various purposes. In addition, we have 10 regular game-preserves farms (Crimea, Azov-Sivashskoe, Bialowieza Forest, and others.) In these farms for the protection of all natural complex organized regularly hunt deer, wild boar and other animals that are threatened by a large number of normal existence of the forest.
Hippos, residents of African water bodies, preserved only through 
the reserve, Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world  
There is in us and protected "monuments of nature": some caves, ancient trees, geysers etc. Organized parks, such as national parks in other countries. Target them - conservation, but also they are designed for mass tourists.In our time, when a man armed with more and more advanced technology, quickly develops themselves seemed inaccessible parts of the world, especially the importance of reserves. Not accidentally, the more the population, intensive industrial production and agriculture, the greater the relative area of protected areas. But remember that the reserves are not the only form of conservation. Conservancy in the modern sense - it is above all sensible use of natural
resources. Used wisely - means enable nature to restore, fill taken man. Wood has a remarkable ability to grow, fish, birds, animals - to multiply. Strictly necessary to protect these regenerative capacity of nature. Keeping fry and young people can dramatically improve catch full of large fish. Privacy elk, saiga antelope and other wild ungulates during reproduction leads to the rapid growth of their livestock as a result you can get many thousands of tons of good meat, soft skin and a medicinal plant.
It should also be remembered that nature - is a complex in which all phenomena are very closely intertwined and determine one another. For successful conservation must take into account these relationships. It is known that deforestation in the watersheds and along rivers, creeks plowing lead to shallowing water and dirt, and due to improper grazing 
pastures with sandy soils become barren deserts. Sometimes it is extremely difficult to predict the changes that may occur when a person makes the entire area, changing the water regime of rivers in weight destroys predators and pests. For example, the use of pesticides in forests caused by them not only the extermination of pests, disappeared and useful animals in the forests, fields and even in rivers. Soon pests that were previously "under pressure" these useful animals, gave a new, even greater numbers flash on throughout the district. In order to avoid such consequences of intervention in the life of the natural environment, we have a very good knowledge of the relationship of the natural processes in the natural landscape. Development of scientific bases of conservation and restoration of natural resources based on knowledge of these processes are also involved in reserves.
Seagulls-moevky on rookery, Reserve "Seven Islands" (Murmansk 
region),Wildlife and nature conservation, animal in world  
Due to the unprecedented scale of the use and processing of natural resources, there was another important issue: how to protect our environment environment from pollution? Indeed, in many industrial and densely populated countries dumping of industrial and domestic water in the river made ​​them unfit for life. In some countries, the oxygen consumed more than give its green plants on their territory. Heavily contaminated were many areas of the oceans. Development of new technologies, in which water after use cleaned and used again now (closed cycle), improvement of filters that purify the gaseous discharge of industrial enterprises, etc. - all of which is essential to the protection of nature and health. After forest - is not only a certain number cubic meters of wood, fur source, mushrooms, berries, and also one of the main sources of oxygen. Clean rivers need not only for navigation and generate electricity, but also as an environment for living fish as a source of drinking water. Nature inexhaustible means healthy people. It is impossible to overestimate the aesthetic value of nature. Millennia it inspires creativity greatest thinkers, poets, musicians and artists. Love to mother nature - a source of patriotism. We guarded nature for people to man the present day and future generations.
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