Genitourinary apparatus animals, Reproductive organs of males and females
Genitourinary apparatus represented in the body by excretion and reproductive organs.
Selection body consisting of kidney mocheotvodyaschyh ways. Kidneys (ren, nephros) - paired organs located retroperitoneal in lumbar abdominal cavity. Externally they are covered with fat and fibrous capsule. The classification of renal put their location embryonic segments - pochechek, each of which consists of cortical (mocheotdelitelnoy), intermediate (vascular) and brain (mocheotvodyaschyh) zones.The same area has definitive kidney. In cattle kidney grooved in omnivores - smooth mnohososochkovye in solipeds, carnivores and small ruminants - smooth odnososochkovye. Structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron, which consists of vascular glomeruli surrounded by a capsule (glomerulus and capsule form malpihyevo body, located in the cortical area) of convoluted and straight tubules (straight tubules form the loop of Henle, located in the medulla).Medulla a renal pyramid that ends papilla and papilla, in turn, opens into the renal pelvis.
|Kidney-Genitourinary apparatus animals|
Urine is formed in two phases: the filtering and reabsorbtsionnoy. The first phase provided the special conditions of blood flow in the renal glomeruli. The result of this phase is the formation of primary urine (blood plasma without proteins). Out of every 10 liters of blood flowing through the glomerulus, formed 1 l of primary urine. During the second phase of the reverse absorption of water, many salts, glucose, amino acids, etc. Furthermore reuptake in the kidney tubules occurs active secretion. The result is a secondary urine. Out of every 90 liters of primary urine that passes through the tubules, formed a 1 liter recycled urine. Activity kidney regulated autonomic nervous system and cortex (nervous regulation), and pituitary hormones, thyroid and adrenal glands (humoral regulation).
|Genitourinary apparatus animals|
Reproductive organs of males and femalesdespite the apparent differences, have a common schematic diagram of the structure and consist of gonads, excretory tract and external genitalia (support staff).Output path in the process of development is closely related to the straits of primary buds.
Sex glands in males called semennykami (testis, didymis, orchis), and females - ovary (ovarium, oopharon). In female gonads are located in the abdomen behind the kidneys (in cattle at sacral tubercles), have their own ducts (egg falls directly into the abdominal cavity). Ovarian cyclic activity. In the male sex glands located in a special Grow abdomen - Semennykovoy bag (lying between the thighs or under the anus), have their own excretory duct (straight tubules of the testes). Activity noncyclic testes
By displays routes in females include: oviducts, uterus, vagina and urinary Eve. Oviduct (oviductus, salpinx, tubae uterina, tubae fallopii) - a body insemination. It consists of a funnel (initial part), capsules (twisted middle part, and in which fertilization occurs) and isthmus (final part). The uterus (uterus, metra, hystera) - fruiting body, vagina (vagina) - organ of copulation, urogenital Eve (vestibulum vaginae) - the body which combined sex and mocheotvodyaschyh way. The uterus has two horns, body and cervix in pets antlered type, located mainly in the abdomen (place fruiting), body and neck with Glady-komyshechnym sphincter (located in the pelvic cavity and cervical canal has). The wall of the uterus consists of three layers: the mucosal (endometrium) - internal muscle (myometrium) - average, serous (perimeter) - external.
|Genitourinary apparatus in male|
|Genitourinary apparatus in female|
Reproduction (Play)a biological process that ensures the preservation of the species and increase its size. It is associated with puberty (initiation of the reproductive organs, increased excretion of sex hormones and sexual reflexes appearance).
|Genitourinary apparatus in male|