Monday, February 11, 2013

Genitourinary apparatus animals, Reproductive organs of males and females

Genitourinary apparatus represented in the body by excretion and reproductive organs.


Selection body consisting of kidney mocheotvodyaschyh ways. Kidneys (ren, nephros) - paired organs located retroperitoneal in lumbar abdominal cavity. Externally they are covered with fat and fibrous capsule. The classification of renal put their location embryonic segments - pochechek, each of which consists of cortical (mocheotdelitelnoy), intermediate (vascular) and brain (mocheotvodyaschyh) zones.The same area has definitive kidney. In cattle kidney grooved in omnivores - smooth mnohososochkovye in solipeds, carnivores and small ruminants - smooth odnososochkovye. Structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron, which consists of vascular glomeruli surrounded by a capsule (glomerulus and capsule form malpihyevo body, located in the cortical area) of convoluted and straight tubules (straight tubules form the loop of Henle, located in the medulla).Medulla a renal pyramid that ends papilla and papilla, in turn, opens into the renal pelvis.
Kidney-Genitourinary apparatus animals
Renal pelvis is absent only in cattle. The kidneys in the body carry out the following functions: remove from the body products of protein metabolism, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and glucose and regulate blood pH and maintain constant osmotic pressure, remove the body of substances that come from the outside (Fig.).


Urine is formed in two phases: the filtering and reabsorbtsionnoy. The first phase provided the special conditions of blood flow in the renal glomeruli. The result of this phase is the formation of primary urine (blood plasma without proteins). Out of every 10 liters of blood flowing through the glomerulus, formed 1 l of primary urine. During the second phase of the reverse absorption of water, many salts, glucose, amino acids, etc. Furthermore reuptake in the kidney tubules occurs active secretion. The result is a secondary urine. Out of every 90 liters of primary urine that passes through the tubules, formed a 1 liter recycled urine. Activity kidney regulated autonomic nervous system and cortex (nervous regulation), and pituitary hormones, thyroid and adrenal glands (humoral regulation).
Genitourinary apparatus animals
In the urinary tract include kidney calyx and renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra. Ureter (ureter) lies behind the peritoneum and consists of three parts: abdominal, pelvic and cystic. It opens in the bladder neck between the mucosal and muscle membranes. Urinary bladder (vesica urinaria) located on lonnyh bones (in carnivorous and omnivorous mostly in the abdomen) and consists of tops, directed into the abdominal cavity, the body and the neck, which is directed to the pelvic cavity and a sphincter


Bladder-Genitourinary apparatus animals

In bladder well developed muscular membrane, which has three layers of muscles. In his position bladder hold three connections: two lateral and one median. Urethra (uretra) has significant sexual characteristics. So, while females have a long and located in the vagina. In males, it is short, as almost immediately merges with sexual straits called the urogenital canal that has considerable length and opens the head of the penis urogenital (urethral) shoot.

Reproductive organs of males and females 

despite the apparent differences, have a common schematic diagram of the structure and consist of gonads, excretory tract and external genitalia (support staff).Output path in the process of development is closely related to the straits of primary buds.
Genitourinary apparatus male 

Sex glands

Sex glands in males called semennykami (testis, didymis, orchis), and females - ovary (ovarium, oopharon). In female gonads are located in the abdomen behind the kidneys (in cattle at sacral tubercles), have their own ducts (egg falls directly into the abdominal cavity). Ovarian cyclic activity. In the male sex glands located in a special Grow abdomen - Semennykovoy bag (lying between the thighs or under the anus), have their own excretory duct (straight tubules of the testes). Activity noncyclic testes
Genitourinary apparatus in male 
By displays routes in females include: oviducts, uterus, vagina and urinary Eve. Oviduct (oviductus, salpinx, tubae uterina, tubae fallopii) - a body insemination. It consists of a funnel (initial part), capsules (twisted middle part, and in which fertilization occurs) and isthmus (final part). The uterus (uterus, metra, hystera) - fruiting body, vagina (vagina) - organ of copulation, urogenital Eve (vestibulum vaginae) - the body which combined sex and mocheotvodyaschyh way. The uterus has two horns, body and cervix in pets antlered type, located mainly in the abdomen (place fruiting), body and neck with Glady-komyshechnym sphincter (located in the pelvic cavity and cervical canal has). The wall of the uterus consists of three layers: the mucosal (endometrium) - internal muscle (myometrium) - average, serous (perimeter) - external.
Genitourinary apparatus in male 
In males to print channels include: straight tubules testes, appendage semennyka, semyaprovod and urinary channel. Appendage semennyka (epididymis) is located on the seed and covered it with a common serous membrane (special vaginal membrane). It has a head, body and tail. Semyaprovod (ductus deferens) starts from the tail of the epididymis and in the spermatic cord enters the abdomen is dorsally from the bladder and goes into the urogenital canal. Urogenital canal has two parts: the pelvic (located at the bottom of the pelvic cavity) and widow (located on the ventral surface of the penis). The initial part of the pelvic portion called Prostate part With deduce straits in males and females associated adventitious gonads. In females it preddverno gland, located in the wall of the urinary vestibule, and in males is prostate or prostate (located in the bladder neck), vesicular glands (located on the side of the bladder in dogs no) and onion (bulbouretralnye) cancer ( located in a place of transition pelvic part of the urogenital canal in widows in no dogs). All subordinate male sex glands open into the pelvic part of the urogenital canal. All organs of the reproductive system of males and females, are located in the abdomen, with their own ripples

External genitalia

Genitourinary apparatus in female 
External genitalia in females are called vulvoy and represented sex (embarrassing) lips and clitoris, which originates from the buttocks, and his head is located in the ventral Spike lips. In males, the external genitals include the penis (penis), which also originates from the buttocks and consists of two legs, body and head, covered preputsiya (fold of skin, which consists of two leaves), and Semennykovoy bag, its outer layer called the scrotum. The structure Semennykovoy bag except scrotum include vaginal membrane (peritoneum derivatives and transverse abdominal fascia) and muscle - podnimatel semennyka (derivative of the internal oblique abdominal muscle).

Reproduction (Play)

a biological process that ensures the preservation of the species and increase its size. It is associated with puberty (initiation of the reproductive organs, increased excretion of sex hormones and sexual reflexes appearance).


Genitourinary apparatus in male
process that manifests itself in the form of genital reflexes: approximation obnimatelnoho reflex erection sovokupytelnoho reflex ejaculation. Centers sexual reflexes are in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord, and their expression affects the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. The hypothalamus regulates the sexual cycle in females.

The sexual cycle 

the complex physiological and morphological changes that occur in the body of a female estrus (or hunting) to another.
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