Friday, January 25, 2013

Surgical Pathology, General data on surgical diseases, methods of treatment and prevention

Surgical Pathology, General data on surgical diseases, methods of treatment and prevention
Surgical Pathology, General data on surgical diseases, methods of treatment and prevention

Surgical Pathology (polietiologicheskoe)

Typically, they are referred to non-communicable diseases character. Surgical diseases are widespread and diverse. Often, their causes are traumatic injuries (open and closed). The most common bumps, sprains, tears, lacerations, bruises, limfoekstravazaty, hernias, wounds, diseases of the joints, tendons, tendon sheaths, bone fractures, diseases of nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and disease hoof kopytets and eyes.Surgical Pathology always accompanied by inflammation. In some cases, clinical signs clearly expressed, in others they are not.


When surgical diseases used surgical and conservative treatment. With conservative treatments deserves special attention pathogenetic therapy, which includes a number of treatments. Among the most common novocaine blockade and physiotherapy.

Novocaine blockade 

Surgical Pathology, General data on surgical diseases, methods of treatment and prevention

is used in almost all cases, surgical pathology, except for certain diseases for which they are contraindicated. The main ones are: disease failure and redundancy of macro-and micronutrients; formed scars, exostosis, deforming arthritis, arthrosis running; osteodystrophy and liver cirrhosis, severe resorptive fever, sepsis, malignant and benign.

Characteristics of novocaine

Novocaine is a colorless crystal or white crystalline powder, odorless.Very easily soluble in water (1: 1) and alcohol (1: 6). The drug was synthesized in 1905 Has neurotropic action. Found that after entering the body through 15 minutes of blood found traces of it, and in nervous tissue after 48 hours it remains in the amount of 68%.To apply blockades 0.25, 0.5 and 1%-s, and for anesthesia - 2 -5% mortars and novocaine. His response: a good local anesthetic, non-toxic, does not damage or irritate tissue, dilates blood vessels and reduces the formation of acetylcholine and reduces the excitability of peripheral cholinergic systems reduces smooth muscle spasm, reduces the excitability of the heart muscle and motor areas of the cerebral cortex.To reduce absorption and prolong the effect of local anesthesia with novocaine, his solution is to add 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride 1 drop of 5-10 ml of novocaine.It is important to know that in some cases novocaine blockade useless, do not make a positive impact on disease processes and even worsen their course. Contraindications to novocaine therapy in surgical pathology is subacute and chronic illness (they should be treated only in the acute stage), gangrene of the lungs, severe pneumonia and sepsis, liver disease (with low cholinesterase activity slowed sharply hydrolysis novocaine and putting it in the recommended doses can cause intoxication).
antagonists novocaine - sulfanilamide preparations: in its hydrolysis of para-aminobenzoic acid reduces the effectiveness and even eliminates antimicrobial action of these funds.
Method of issuance: powder and capsules to 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 ml of 0.25 and 0.5% solution and 1, 2, 5, 10 ml of 2% solution for injection, and also ointments and candles.
To prepare solutions of novocaine take the necessary amount of powder: 0.5 g per 100 ml of 0.5% Term concentration, 1 g per 100 ml solution of 1% concentration, etc. Solutions prepared in distilled water, isotonic sodium chloride solution, Ringer's solution. One of these solutions make the appropriate number of novocaine powder and sterilized by boiling in a flask for several minutes. Long boiling destroys novocaine, it loses its anesthetic effect and becomes toxic properties.
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