Reproductive organs in animals, genitalia in animal, Sex glands in animal, Education gametes in animal
Female genitaliaThe external female genitalia (vulva) include the labia , urogenital eve of the vagina, clitoris. The internal female reproductive organs include the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.
Oviductpaired organs in the form of tubes (diameter 1 - 1.5 mm), length in cows, mares and pigs 25 - 30 cm in sheep and goats - 9-18 cm in rabbits - 6 - 9 cm, bitches - 5 - 12 cm in cats - 4 - 5 cm
The ovaries (gonads)
pregnancy fall into the abdominal. In mares ovaries bobovydnoy form on the underside with ovulation fossa, which revealed mature follicles. Externally, except ovulyatsyonnoy fossa, they are covered with serous membrane. Located in the abdominal cavity.Pigs ovaries are oval-shape rolling hills, located in the abdominal cavity. In sheep and goats rounded, located in the pelvic cavity during pregnancy - in the belly. In rabbits - elongated oval, located in the abdominal cavity. In dogs and cats - oval, located in the abdominal cavity.At the exit of the ovary shows two layers: cork - follicle, which contains follicles of varying degrees of maturity and brain - vascular, consisting of a dense network of blood vessels and nerves. Male sex organs consist of the penis, prepuce, scrotum, testes and ovaries, and adnexal semyaprovodov gonads.
|Male genitalia-spermatic cord|
Sexual and physiological ripeness animals - the ability of females and males to reproduce offspring. With the onset of puberty genitals reach full development.
Sex glands in females
|Sex glands in females|
Sex glands in males
|Sex glands in males|
Puberty in animals
of all kinds is earlier than end the growth and development of the whole body - the body physiological maturity (Table).Grid. Terms offensive sexual and physiological maturity of animals
Cattle: 12.8 16-18
Horse: 12-18 3-5
Pig: 08.05 10.12
Sheep, goat: 6.8 12-18
Rabbit: 4.5 5.8
Dog: 8.6 12-24
Cat: 05.04 12.10
Animals (females and males) are used for the purposes of reproduction at the conclusion of the processes of the body, reaching 70% of body weight (usual adult animals of this breed and species), and of a certain age. Premature inseminated females (the age of maturity of the body) and the long absence of their insemination after reaching physiological maturity of the body are undesirable, because they can lead to infertility.
|Education of gametes|
OogenesisOogenesis the process of education, development and maturation of the female reproductive cells (oocytes) in the ovaries (Fig.).
Rice. Ovary 1 - germinal epithelium, 2 - primary follicles, 3 - growing follicles, 4 - mature follicles, 5 - egg
Oogenesis takes a long time, starting from the formation of the cortical layer of primary ovarian follicle to its maturation after ovulation and ends in the oviduct. In Ovogenesis (Oogenesis) distinguish three stages: reproduction, growth and maturation. Ovum consists of protoplasm, nucleus and membrane. It is one of the largest cells.
Diameter her in female mammals is from 0.12 to 0.145 mm. Egg volume more sperm in 10 - 20 thousand times the length - 2 times. The egg was opened in 1827 Russian scientist KE Baer.
The animals are suitable for fertilization only egg maturation process which lasted from 2 to 20 pm With the development and maturation of follicles inside their layer (directory) produces estrogens that act on sexual center and genitals, which contributes to the females sexual dominant ( manifestation of estrus, sexual arousal, hunting and ovulation). Size mature follicle reaches a diameter of 1-2 cm in cows in mares - 4 - 6 cm in pigs - 0.5 - 1 cm in sheep and goats - 0.3 - 0.8 cm, rabbits, and bitches cats - 0.2-0.3 cm to stage large follicles develop some mature follicles, as estrogens inhibit production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Reduced levels of FSH, in turn, slows the growth and maturation of small follicles undergoing atresia (zapustevaniyu).
|Education of gametes-Oogenesis|
|Education of gametes-Spermatogenesis|
In Spermiohenez unlike Ovogenesis distinguish four stages: reproduction, growth, maturation and formation. Sperm is strongly elongated in length (from 54 to 72 microns) cell. Length sperm does not depend on the type of animal. Open sperm in 1677 range. Outside sperm covered with a thin but strong sheath that the chemical composition is similar to the keratin of skin animals. Mature sperm are on the surface negative electric charge, which prevents them bonding (agglutination). Spermatozoa move only against the current of fluid (reotaksis) at a rate of 3 - 5 mm / min. The whole process from the first division Spermiohenez original cells until sperm in appendage semennyka lasts 35 - 55 days. One day in the testes produced 5 - 7 billion sperm. The tail of the epididymis semennyka is a kind of biological repository of spermatozoa through the epididymis secretions acidic reaction (pH 5.7 - 6.5) sperm pass into a state of suspended animation. The concentration of spermatozoa in the tail of the epididymis in males of all species in an average of 4-5 billion in 1 ml. The whole process of spermatogenesis is dependent on the state of the male, his food, maintenance, external and internal factors.
|Education of gametes-Spermatogenesis|