Pregnancy in animals, Diagnosing pregnancy in animal
the physiological condition of the body females during fruiting, from fertilization to birth or abortion. Pregnant cows (heifers) called pregnant, mares - foals, sheep and goats - suyahnym, pigs - gestation, rabbits - sukrolnosti, bitches - schennymi, cats - kotnoy. There singleton pregnancy - in cows, mares and multiple - in pigs, sheep, rabbits, bitches. Adrift distinguish pregnancy physiological, pathological, and additional false. Duration of pregnancy - the period from fertilization (from last insemination) of females before birth. It depends on the type of animal, maintenance, care and feeding, breed and other factors.
in cows - from 270 to 310 days in mares - from 320 to 355 days in pigs - from 110 to 120 days in sheep and goats - from 145 to 160 days in rabbits - from 28 to 33 days in females - from 56 to 72 days in cats - from 56 to 60 days. Diagnosis of pregnancy. Determining pregnancy in animals is of great practical importance, which allows to control fertilization and reproduction. Diagnosis of pregnancy in animals conducted clinical, laboratory techniques and using instruments.
|Pregnancy in cow|
Palpation (probing) of the fetus through the abdominal wall to the right (preferably before feeding) is short and fast shocks fist of his right hand in the iliac region. If a cow (heifer) calf, the detectable solid movable body. This method can be applied no earlier than 5 months of pregnancy.
|Pregnancy in cow|
listening frequency tones (GHG) fetal heart (normal 120-130 in 1 min) and mother (normal 50 -80 to 1 min) performed in the right iliac region cows with 4 - 5 months of pregnancy.
Internal study consists of vaginal, rectal methods and application ultrasonography (USG). They may hold a veterinary specialist or livestock.
Vaginal method is based on a review of the vagina and cervix using vaginal mirror, which is injected into the vagina cows (heifers). When pregnancy felt dryness of vagina, mucus viscosity, the cervical canal is closed, it is a mucous plug. In nestelnyh animals these signs are absent.Rectal method is based on probing through the rectum anatomical and topographical changes in the uterus, ovaries and nourish these organs vessels. Research conducted from 1 - 2 months pregnancy. In the study to use the glove. Cows and heifers examined in the stall or machine.In nestelnyh cows uterus is located in the pelvic cavity on lonnyh bones. Palpation its horns cut. The uterus has a spherical shape, divided mezhrohovoy groove.In tional cows (heifers), depending on the term of pregnancy in the genitals occurring changes in rectal examination characterized by the following features: the first month of pregnancy horn-plodovmestylysche more than 1.5 times the opposite, there is fluctuation in amniotic fluid (80 - 100 ml).In the second month of calf horn 2 times more neberemennoho, amniotic fluid in the uterus 300 - 500 ml, fluctuation progresses. Mezhrohovaya groove almost smoothed. In the third month of horn-plodovmestylysche increased 4-fold compared to non-pregnant, diameter of 12-15 cm, the amniotic fluid 900-1200 ml fluctuation it is well defined in both corners. In the fourth month promatsuyutsya parts fetus platsentomy size of beans, felt vibration (buzzing) average uterine artery in horn-plodovmestilischa, amniotic fluid 3 - 4 liters. In the fifth month of the uterus is lowered into the peritoneal cavity together with the neck. Platsentomy size of a pigeon's egg or acorn.
The average uterine artery diameter of 8-10 mm, its vibration increases. Fruit easily detectable. In the sixth month the uterus of the fruit is deep in the abdomen. Platsentomy size of a hen's egg, vibration middle uterine artery horn-plodovmestilischa expressed much the diameter of 10-12 mm. The average uterine artery free horns also vibrates, but weaker than pregnant, its diameter 7 - 9 mm. On the seventh or eighth month well detectable fruit medium severe vibration uterine arteries vibrate both rear uterine artery.For the ninth month of pregnancy characterized by wedging of the fruit in the pelvic cavity, vibration uterine arteries increases, the diameter is 18 - 20 mm. There are harbingers of sorts.
|Pregnancy in cow|
In mares zherebost determine refleksolohycheskyy, vaginal, rectal methods using ultrasound apparatus, as well as inspection, palpation and auscultation of the abdominal wall of the abdominal cavity. refleksolohycheskyy method used from the 5th day after insemination of mares by stallions test probe.Sample spend up to 20-25th day.On examination comparing contours of left and right halves of the abdominal wall. In foals mares are asymmetrical - the left stands more than the right, in the sixth month zherebosty.
Palpation of the fetus carried out in mares left in nizhnepahovoy area using the right hand, pressing his hand. In foals the mares in the abdomen feel the presence of solids (from 5 - 6 months zherebosty).
|Pregnancy in mare|
listening to fetal heart tones. The frequency of attacks in the fetus should be 130 beats in 1 min, a mare - 20 - 24 strokes in 1 min).In a study of vaginal measured response to the introduction of mares vaginal mirror and ongoing review of vagina and cervical canal. Studies conducted in sterile mirror. In nezhereboho mares mirror easily inserted into the vagina and is easily derived from it. The mucous membrane of the vagina in the normal pale pink and moist. Cervical canal without mucus plug. In foals mares vaginal mucosa and cervix slightly pale, matte, sticky mucus contains gray, mirror inserted and removed from the vagina with difficulty. In a vaginal examination can diagnose 4-8-week zherebost.
Rectal examination conducted in nursing mares in special machines or in the arena, where you want to fix them securely. The research involves probing the ovaries (from left), uterine horns, body and cervix, uterine ligaments and arteries. When zherebosty in mares in the genitals characteristic changes occur. In the first months of the ovary zherebosty zhereboy horns increased (he luteum), pubescent and not very mobile. Pregnant horn of the uterus and forms a thickened oval bubble the size of a hen's egg, well defined bifurcation horns. In the second month at the base of pregnant horn palpable bladder the size of a goose egg. flyuktuiruet and he dropped outside lonnogo seam, well pronounced asymmetry horns. In the third month of both ovaries lowered to the level of the bottom of the pelvis and close together. Pregnant horn more opposite in 2.5 - 3 times the size of a child's head, flyuktuiruet contains up to 2 liters of amniotic fluid, it detectable fetus. In the fourth month of horn-plodovmestylysche size of an adult human head, hangs in the abdominal cavity and well flyuktuiruet. In the fifth, sixth month of the uterus to the fruit deeply lowered into the abdominal cavity, is well defined vibration middle uterine arteries (diameter of 5 -7 mm). On the seventh or eighth month of the uterus to the fruit is deep in the abdomen, vibration middle uterine arteries both horns increases. At nine or ten months of the fruit easily detectable as it moves in the pelvic cavity, there is a strong vibration (buzzing) secondary uterine and posterior uterine arteries. Eleventh month zherebosty characterized forerunners of childbirth.
Sheep and goats
Suyahnost sheep and goats, swine gestation and diagnosed sukrolnostkrolchih refleksolohycheskyy and external methods, which have the feature for each animal.
Laboratory methods for diagnosis of pregnancy
Laboratory methods for diagnosis of pregnancy is applicable for large and for small animals. These include studies of blood, milk, urine, vaginal and cervical mucus, etc. However, these methods are not widely used in the practice of animal husbandry.Currently using different ultrasonic devices and ultrasound (crawling on the screen), which can be used in large and small animals in early pregnancy, but they are very expensive and require special training.