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Sunday, October 28, 2012
veterinary online-CATTLE MANAGEMENT

veterinary online-CATTLE MANAGEMENT

THE CALF
care of newly born calf :
1-directly after birth umbilical cord is cut by clean knife at 2 cm form abdominal wall then soaked in iodine solution
2-dam must lick the calf to dry the calf and stimulate breathing 
if dam is exhausted lead to the calf should be placed at dam haed to lick it 
remove mucus frome mouth and nose 
calf

Wednesday, October 24, 2012
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
Wednesday, October 10, 2012
veterinary online-Definition of anatomy

veterinary online-Definition of anatomy

Anatomy

The branch of biological science that deals with the forms and structures of the organisms ,therefore its treats the body systems and organs and it is in relashion with physiology that treats the function of the body organs.
Anatomy includes:
A- Special Anatomy 
B-Special Anatomy 

Special Anatomy

 the study of particular species of animals Compa

rative Anatomy

 description and cooperation the structures of different types of animals, When the anatomy was study the structures and organs by naked eye termed Gross Anatomy to differentiated from microscopic anatomy or Histology that study the structure of 
the body by microscop

anatomy of chicken

VETERINARY ANATOMY

Its a branches of anatomy that study the structures and forms of the domestic animals
There are three methods employed to study Veterinary Anatomy:

Systematic Anatomy 

Study and described the different body systems which similar in origins and structures.they consists of the following parts:
A-Osteology:  Study the bones and cartilages that forms the skeleton.
B-Syndesmology:  Study the joints and tendons.
C-Myology:  Study the muscles and their accessory structures.
D-Splanchnology :  description of the Viscera (digestive ,Respiratory ,Urogenital, and Peritonium)
E-Angiology :  describe the heart ,Arteries, Veins lymphatic vessels and nodes and spleen.
F-Neurology : Study the nervous system.
G-Aesthesiology:  Study the Sense organs.
H-Endocrinology:  study the endocrine glands (Thyriod, Pa rathyroid,Adrena I, Pituta ry,)
I-Common Integument: Whose chief functions are as aprotective envelope of the body( Skin, Hair ....)

Topographic Anatomy

 Indication the relative positions and directions and describetheir structur2s of different body organs.

Applied Anatomy

 Study the anatomical facts of the different body structures and their relations with other medical sciences as ( surgery, Clinical diagnosis)

Monday, October 8, 2012
veterinary online-OSTEOLOGY

veterinary online-OSTEOLOGY

OSTEOLOGY
OSTEOLOGY

Study of the anatomical structures and description of the skeleton and bones 
The skeleton of the animals composed of bones and cartilages articulates and fused with the others to form the main body axis, and acts as a levers tor muscles movements and protects some soft body organs ( Brain, Heart and Lungs).
The skeleton divided into three parts
1- Axial Skeleton; includes skull, vertebral column, Ribs and sternurn.
2- Appendicular skeleton; the bones of hind and Core limbs.
structure of bone

veterinary online-Anatomical Directions & Anatomical Planes

veterinary online-Anatomical Directions & Anatomical Planes

Anatomical Directions & Anatomical

Planes




Anatomical Directions & Anatomical Planes 
Directional terms come in opposing pairs (like East/West and North/South). Anatomical directional terms are used to describe relative position consistently within a cadaver, independent of how the cadaver is oriented in the East/West, North/South world. 
Dorsal/Ventral:
Dorsal -- directed toward the back [head, trunk, tail]; also applied to manus & pes. 
Ventral -- dire
cted toward the belly [head, trunk, tail].

Medial/Lateral:
Medial -- directed toward the midline (median plane) [head, trunk, tail, & limbs].
Lateral -- directed away from the median plane, toward the flank [head, trunk, tail, & limbs].

Cranial/Caudal:
Cranial -- directed toward the cranium (brain case) [trunk, tail, limbs].
Caudal -- directed toward the tail (& beyond) [head, trunk, tail, limbs].

Rostral/Caudal:
Rostral -- directed toward the nose (beak) [head].
Caudal -- directed toward the tail (& beyond) [head, trunk, tail, limbs].

Proximal/Distal:
Proximal -- directed toward the body [limbs & tail].
Distal -- directed away from the body [limbs & tail].
Are used to describe cuts made through a cadaver in order to view structures exposed by the cuts. While a very large number of possible cuts could be made through a particular cadaver, three orthogonal (at right angles to one another) planes are most important. (Limbs are usually cut (transected) in only one plane, perpe
ndicular to their long axis.)

Dorsal Plane:A Dorsal Plane is parallel to the back [head, trunk, tail].

Transverse Plane:A Transverse Plane is perpendicular to the long axis of the body [head, trunk, tail].

Sagittal Plane:A Sagittal Plane divides the body into right/left parts [head, trunk, tail].

Median Plane:The Median Plane is a mid-sagittal plane that divides the body into left/right halves [head, trunk, tail].




 veterinary online- Histology-endocrine glands

veterinary online- Histology-endocrine glands

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

endocrine glands 
Endocrinology is becoming more difficult to define in a meaningful way. The concept has been accepted for many years that an endocrine gland produces a chemical substance (hormone) that is carried by the circulation to a target organ at some considerable distance from the original endocrine gland.

 As an example of some difficulty of classification under this definition, the adrenal medulla produces epinephrine, which is carried by the blood to distant target organs. 

Sympathetic nerves, however, produce a similar substance, norepinephrine, that acts in the immediate vicinity of the nerve ending. It is difficult to classify one substance as a hormone and not the other, because they have so many similarities,

THE PITUITARY GLAND

The pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri) is located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica (Turkish saddle), a depression in the sphenoid bone. on the floor of the cranial cavity. The pituitary gland consists of an anterior lobe, an intermediate lobe, and a Posterior lobe

The anterior lobe and intermediate lobe are formed from Rathke' s pocket or pouch, a structure derived from the mucous membrane of the embryonic pharynx. This accounts for the epithelial structure of these lobes.

The posterior lobe (pars nervosa or neurohypophysis) originates from the embryonic brain, and in the adult is still connected to the brain by means of the pituitary stalk. The infundibulum of the stalk attaches to the tuber cinereum, a cone-shaped projection from the brain located at the base of the brain between the optic chiasm (crossing of the optic nerves) and the mammillary body.

The anterior lobe of the pituitary has a projection called the pars tuberalis that extends a variable distance along the front of the pituitary stalk toward the brain.

ADRENAL GLAND
The adrenal glands (also called suprarenal glands from their position in man) are located close to the kidneys. Shape, size, and exact location vary from one species to another.

 Each adrenal gland consists of an outer (peripheral) zone (the cortex) and an inner zone (the medulla), with the entire gland surrounded by a connective tissue capsule.

The parenchymal cells of both the cortex and medulla are arranged in clumps that are related to blood vessels.
thyroid gland
The thyroid gland consists of two lobes located near the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. One lobe is found on each side of the larynx., and an isthmus may or may not connect the two lobes, depending on the species.

A connective tissue capsule covers the gland and sends into the substance of the thyroid, septa which give support and conduct vessels to the epithelial cells.
PARATHYROID GLAND
The paratigroid glands are small nodules located within or near the thyroid gland. Commonly there are two parathyroid glands on each side, but the exact number and location vary with the species.

 Accessory parathyroid glands may be found at a considerable distance from the usual glands. These accessory glands may cause inconstant results in experiments involving removal of the parathyroid glands.

 Parenchyma of the parathyroid glands consists of clumps and cords of epithelial cells interspersed with capillaries. Two types of cells are described, chief cells and oxyphil cells. Chief cells are small cells with dark-staining nuclei and either granular or clear cytoplasm. The closeness of the nuclei to each other gives the tissue a dark.

THE PANCREAS
The islets of _Langerhans are clumps of pale-staining cells scattered among the alveoli and ducts of the pancreas. Cells of the islets, the endocrine portion of the pancreas, are arranged in irregular cords separated by capillaries.

 Special stains are used to demonstrate the four types of epithelial cells found in the islets of Langerhans. These are the A or alpha cells, B or beta cells, C cells and D cells.

The B cells are the most common and produce the hormone insulin, which is necessary to prevent diabetes mellitus.

 A cells produce the hormone, glucagon, that is antagonistic to insulin. The C and D cells look much the same, and their significance is unknown.

THE PINEAL BODY
The pineal body (epiphysis cerebri) is sometimes included as an endocrine gland. It contains a high content of serotonin and an enzyme which converts this to melatonin.


The enzyme, hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase, has not been found in any tissue other than the pineal body. The fact that it functions with a circadian rhythm and hence does not release its products constantly, points to consideration of photo-periods having an influence in animals via this body, The pineal body is located above the thalamus and is attached to the roof of the third ventricle.

 Parenchymal cells, neuroglial cells, and nerve fibers are found in the substance of the pineal body. There is some evidence that the pineal body tends to inhibit development of gonads in the male.
THE THYMUS GLAND
The thymus gland is the true sweetbread, although the pancreas is sometimes classed as a sweetbread. The thymus is a lymphoid organ found on both sides of the trachea within the cranial mediastinal space and along the neck for a variable distance, depending on the age and species of animal.

 During early development of the thymus it resembles an endocrine gland, because of the arrangement of parenchymal cells in cords. However, production of a hormone has not been proven.

 As development progresses, the parenchymal cells are crowded by cells that appear to be identical to small lymphocytes, but are called thymocytes.

 Odd groups of degenerating cells called thymic corpuscles (Hassal's corpuscles) are scattered throughout the substance of the thymus.

 Current evidence suggests that the thymus is the source of a blood borne factor which induces the differentiation of lymphoid precursor or stem cells, making them capable of taking part in immune reactions
Thursday, October 4, 2012
Veterinary Anatomy Online - The urinary system

Veterinary Anatomy Online - The urinary system

urinary system
consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra

ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEYS
The kidneys are organs for nitration of plasma and plasma constituents from blood, and selective rebsorption of water and nutrients from the nitrate.
 With the exception of the lobulated kidneys of the cow and the heartshaped right kidney of the horse, most domestic animals have somewhat 

beanshaped kidneys
In the cow, sheep, and goat, particularly with a full rumen, the left kidney may be pushed to the right as far as the median plane or beyond. In these animals the left kidney may be much more loosely attached to the body wall than the right kidney and consequently the left renal artery and vein are longer than the right vessels. Like other abdominal organs, the kidneys are retro peritoneal  that is, they are located outside of the peritoneal cavity. However, the kidneys are more closely attached to the abdominal wall by fascia, vessels, and peritoneum than are other organs
The medial border of the kidney is usually concave and has a marked depression, the renal hilus, where blood vessels and nerves enter and the ureter and lymphatic vessels leave.
 The expanded origin of the ureter within the kidney is called the renal pelvis. It receives urine from the collecting tubules of the kidney. The cavity within the kidney which contains the pelvis is called the renal sinus. The renal pelvis has no relationship to the bony pelvis described as a part of the skeleton.
In the horse, sheep, and dog the collecting tubules empty onto a longitudinal ridge that projects into the renal pelvis. This ridge is called the renal crest. In the kidney of the cow and pig individual pyramids project into minor calyces, which in turn empty into major calyces. These major calyces in the pig kidney empty into the renal pelvis and thence into the ureter. The kidney of the cow has no pelvis, so the major calyces empty into the ureter directly.
The portion of the kidney immediately surrounding the renal pelvis is the medulla, which appears striated because of the radially arranged collecting tubules. These tubules form the basis for the renal pyramids, which have their apices at the renal pelvis and their bases covered by the cortex.
 In addition to collecting tubules, the medulla also contains some loops of Henle. The cortex, located between the medulla and the thin connective tissue capsule, presents a granular appearance because of the large number of (glomeruli). Proximal convoluted tubules and distal convoluted tubules are also located in the cortex in fairly close relation to the glomeruli and many loops of Henle.

urinary system-kidney

BLOOD AND NERVE SUPPLY
The blood supply to the kidney is much more extensive than the size of the organ would suggest.
 The two renal arteries may carry as much as one-fourth of the total circulating blood. The renal artery enters the hilus of the kidney and divides into a number of relatively large branches, the interloba arteries.
 These pass peripherally between pyramids almost to the cortex, where they bend abruptly and travel in an arched manner, suggesting the name arciform or arcuate arteries.
Each arciform artery gives off a number of interlobular arterioles of tbr glomeruli. Leaving the glomeruli, most of j the efferent arterioles break up into a capillaif j network that surrounds the rest of nephron. Those arterioles leaving glom< close to the medulla travel directly into medulla as arteriae rectae where they capillary networks around the collecting tubules.
Arcuate veins drain blood from both the cortex and medulla, pass through the medulla as interlobar veins, and enter the renal Lymph drains from the kidney to the lymph nodes.
 The kidneys of reptiles and amphibians receive a portion of blood from veins which drain the body wall or hind legs.
This system, the renal system, is not found as such in mammal, pampiniform plexus of veins which mammalian testicle is believed to be remnant of the more primitive renal tern.
The kidneys are supplied with symathetic nerves from the renal plexus, which. follow blood vessels and terminate glomerular arterioles. Branches of the vagus nerve may also supply the kidneys,The success of kidney transplantation suggest the nerves do not have much to do but may only control the blood vessels Both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator nerve in the kidney.


THE URETERS, BLADDER AND URETHRA
The ureter is amuscular tube which conveys urine from the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder.
 Each ureter passes caudally to empty into the bladder near its neck at an area known as the trigont. Which the ureter passes obliquely through the wall of the bladder forms an effective valve to return flow of urine to the kidneyThe urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ that varies in size and position with the amount of urine it contains. The empty bladder is a thick-walled, pear-shaped structure located on the floor of the pelvis. As the bladder fills with urine, the wall become thinner, and most of the bladder is displaced cranially toward or into the abdominal cavity.
 Peritoneum covers a variable amount of the cranial portion of the bladder depending on its fullness. The caudal part of the bladder is covered with pelvic fasciaThe neck of the bladder is continuous with theurethra caudally, and the muscle of the bladder arranged in a circular manner at the neck of the bladder, forming a sphincter that controls passage of urine into the urethra.
The pelvis,ureter. Bladder and urethra all are lined with transitional epithelium. This epithelial lining is useful in these areas where considerable distention of the lumen may occur.
When these organs are empty the lumen is small, walls are thick, and the lining epithelial cells are piled deeply to form stratification. However, when the organ are distended, the lumen is enlarged, the wall are thinner,

 The kidneys are located in the dorsal part of the abdominal cavity on each side of the aorta and vena cava just ventral to the
first few lumbar vertebrae




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