Sunday, November 11, 2012

veterinary online-Veterinary nursing animals

Veterinary oncology - the science that studies the anatomical and topographical structure toe and hoof solipeds and kopytets artiodactyls animals, individual characteristics, biomechanics hooves (kopytets), shoeing, research methods, causes of disease, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures.
Before we treat animals is necessary to examine structural features and functions of the finger and hoof solipeds and kopytets in artiodactyls animals, correct and incorrect statement limbs and its influence on the shape of hooves (kopytets) learn to recognize hoof deformity (kopytets) crack and sternoschisis.
The most common in the hoof (kopytets) is a disease in corolla, crumb, arrows and tissues vault mezhkopyttsevoy slit.
Wounds in the corolla, vaults mezhkopyttsevoy cracks and crumb have the character killed or ushyblenno-torn, almost always positive and usually horses are called "serifs". In artiodactyls wounds can be mezhkopyttsevoy of the corolla, which is well developed mezhpaltsevaya loose fiber.
Wounds are clogged, split and torn. They can be applied by animals (hoof or horseshoe other limbs).This is facilitated by incorrect setting of limbs, improper shoeing, fatigue animal movement on slippery road in deep snow. Wounds can be deposited various metal and other sharp objects.
Superficial wounds can heal without complications. When the skin is damaged bases corolla or conducting layer of the epidermis in some degree disturbed rohoobrazovanyya process. If injured at one point repeating it wound becomes an ulcer. With deep infected wounds corolla may develop abscess, purulent inflammation ungulate joint.
Infected wounds to heel in solipeds may be complicated by necrosis or cartilage development myakishnoho perihondralnoy phlegmon.
In cattle these wounds inflicted by mezhkopyttsevoy slit prone phlegmon and necrosis mezhkopyttsevaya connection.Wounds can have jagged edges, sometimes in the form of flaps. Horses need careful study, as the place injury can cover the hair.
Skin wounds are not usually accompanied by lameness, which appears as a symptom already developing inflammation.
With deep wounds there is a strong pain corolla, when the inflammatory process develops swelling, increased local temperature hoof lameness and there are possible complications of the subcutaneous tissue and other tissues (abscess corolla, necrosis myakishnyh cartilage, suppurative arthritis ungulate joints, etc.).
Superficial wounds with timely treatment usually heal.
In the absence of treatment and distribution of infection can be serious complications developing abscess process. This unfavorable prognosis.
Therefore we must systematically examine hooves and hoof, especially in traumatic injuries and provide immediate assistance.With deep infected wounds and damaged tissues hlubzhelezhaschyh less favorable prognosis in advanced cases - poor.
First aid is smearing wounds and adjacent areas corolla 5% alcohol solution of iodine removal of wool in the corolla over him. The wound was thoroughly washed with soap and antiseptic solutions or make lizolovuyu bath draining wound and surrounding skin with sterile cloth. Secondary grease a 5% solution of iodine above the corolla make circular anesthesia with 1% procaine-it antybyotykovoy solution is removed from the wound of foreign particles, if necessary, dead tissue excised.
The wound was copiously sprinkled complex powder and put moderate pressure bandage soaked yodirovannm alcohol at a dilution of 1:1000 or liniment Vishnevsky. With minor pain reaction and weakly pronounced lameness dressing change on the 3rd day, and balsamic dressing with ointment - to 4-5th day.
A very important condition for the treatment of wounds in the corolla - prevention of pressure horns on the wound surface, liquidation pus pus pockets disclosure. To relieve pressure on its horns stonshuyut coronal edge horny hoof capsule without exposing nipples and leaves skin foundations. Removed only the top layer of horn. Only when detachment hoofed horn in the corolla, when there is a pocket of pus and pus should remove all otsloivshiesya horn.
When excessive growth of granulation appropriate to apply pressure bandage. Pathologically growing horn knife carefully cut ungulates or remove rasp.If the inflammatory process in the corolla is accompanied by a strong painful response and significant disorder limb advisable to use hot tubs. they cause congestion actively contribute to leaching of toxic products, rejection of necrotic tissue, cleaning and reducing pain.
Treatment of gunshot wounds with injury horny capsule and ungulate bones without involvement ungulate joint after careful removal of damaged tissue, using iodoform-ether (1: 10) and dihtyarnym bandages or complex powder usually ends in recovery.
The basis of prevention of injuries and skin corolla in mezhkopyttsevoy gap is proper care of animals.Avoid prolonged race animals in winter on ice and snow. Winter to shoe horses spike only wounded and on the outer branches of horseshoes. We must avoid sudden stops and sedimentation horse back. In some cases where you can not eliminate the notch in the rim, which may be in the wrong setting limbs, apply special nohavki that should be fixed in the tie belt with felt lining.stab wound in the sole of hoof kopytets and arrows often have the character of penetrating wounds.They can be shallow and deep stab, stab.
Such wounds are usually inflicted contaminated sharp objects, fragments of iron nails, glass, wood chips, etc. Often these items may fall into a bed of sawdust. In some cases, they can be the horses in advance to the lapel detached and moved horseshoes. Shallow stab wounds in the area of ​​the front of the foot are less dangerous, because in this area there is subcutaneous tissue (affected base skin). With a deep wound may damage ungulates (kopyttsevidnoy) bone and cast its thin edges.
When wound uninfected subjects and timely treatment can quickly stop the inflammatory response. The most profound adverse infected stab wound. Depending on the injury or hands and soles of the depth of penetration wounds object in the inflammatory process may be involved in the subcutaneous layer of the crumb, arrows and develop abscess.
With deep puncture wounds in animals marked lameness, it does not rely on the affected limb. There have been increasing local temperature, increased pulse finger arteries, characterized knocking pulse.On palpation animal reacts painfully, the presence of a foreign body sticking out above the surface of the foot or hands, can easily
identify the cause of this reaction. In other cases where the foreign body is deeply hidden in the soles or switch grooves need special study. In identifying the object localization wounds after careful preparation, under local anesthesia make its removal. In animals which a foreign body was removed to enter the treatment room its penetration detected after clearing hoof or hooves as spavshehosya, blackened in the lumen of the channel.
When puncture wounds of the foot and hands washed, clearing hoof drew foreign body under local anesthesia. In the event that an animal with splitted wound received the treatment without foreign body in the wound after thorough cleaning well disinfect the wound channel to lubricate the damaged area of ​​5% alcohol solution of iodine, remove nonviable tissue from the wound channel and pipette or syringe injected into it 5%-ing alcoholic solution of iodine and put tar bandage. Animals must put in a clean room with fresh litter. If the wound is superficial, and limp the next day is not enhanced bandage change on 2-3rd day.

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