Thursday, January 3, 2013

The structure of animal bones, Osteology, Skeleton, studying bones

Osteology (gr. osteon - bone, logos - teaching) - the science of studying bones.

Skeleton (gr. skeleton - wizened, dried) - a collection of bones (ossa) and cartilage (cartilagines), formed varieties skeletal tissues: bone and cartilage. The body skeleton performs the following functions: mechanical - defensive, protective, locomotion (locomotio - moving the body in space); biological - form-building; antyhravitatsiynu (overcoming gravity), hematopoietic (bone marrow is red), metabolic (involved in the exchange substances, especially mineral).
structure of bone
Such a skeleton performs a variety of functions due to the unique structure of its bones , consisting of water (50% in nematsirovannoy bone) and the dry residue, in turn, consists of organic (33%) and inorganic (67%) of substances, the most common Ca , P and Mg. This structure allows bone properties biokompozity in which the mechanical properties of bone mechanical properties superior to the sum of its constituent substances. 
bones are constantly occurring in two opposite processes that are the essence of physiological adjustment: creation (regeneration) of new bone substance and destruction (resorption) of old bone structures . Exempt the destruction of bone minerals again used to build bone substance, and included in the general metabolism. In addition, Ca and P are mainly in bone in the form of crystals, which causes electrical phenomena in moving the bones (bone development) that serve as additional energy for osteogenesis. Most of the bones of the body (the total number of bones in animals ranging from 207 to 282 depending on the species) formed mature lamellar bone tissue, which consists of separate bony plates arranged concentrically around vascular (havorsova) channel.
Depending on the location of the plates distinguish compact and dense sponge (trabecular) bone substance. The compact bone substance plates form a system of channels - osteons, and the spongy substance - a system of bars (trabeculae) that overlap and form a set of cells.
anatomy of bone
Externally bone covered with periosteum (periosteum), with the exception of the articular surfaces covered with articular cartilage. Periostio rich in blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Due to her bone grows in thickness.
articular cartilage
Inside the bone cavity is bone marrow, which also features blood (hematopoiesis) is involved in the processes of bone formation (osteogenesis) and immune as the central organ of the immune system.
bone cavity
Form of bone depends on the nature of the load falling on a given area of ​​the body, as well as activities associated with bone muscles. In addition, the bone of factors affecting feeding, housing, activity of the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems.
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