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Sunday, February 24, 2013
Fundamentals of general therapy animals

Fundamentals of general therapy animals

Fundamentals of general therapy animals
Fundamentals of general therapy animals

General therapy includes rules and treatments designed to eliminate the causal factors of disease, normalization of metabolism, renewal of the functions of individual organs and systems, productive and reproductive traits of animals.Private therapy combines treatments for specific diseases.Modern therapy based on principles fiziolohichnosti, activity, integrated and cost-effectiveness.
Principle fiziolohichnosti treatment provided primarily creating optimal conditions of feeding and maintenance, the use of diet, use of funds, regulating neurotrophic functions and normalize metabolism.It is necessary that the funds used to treat not suppressed and stimulated and regulated protective physiological response.The principle of active treatment implemented radical elimination of etiological factors, the use of the most efficient tools and treatments. Active therapy is useful only if it is based on the mobilization of the physiological mechanisms by which the body is protected from malicious agents.The principle involves the use of adjuvant therapy based treatment regimens using the methods and means to eliminate external and internal causes of disease, the creation of optimal conditions and feeding animals using causal, pathogenetic, stimulating and other types of therapy.The principle of economic feasibility based on the fact that ultimately treatment of farm animals must be economically justified.
Fundamentals of general therapy animals

Saturday, February 23, 2013
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Suture materials and patterns in animal, Suture materials used in veterinary science

Recently the Board of Veterinary Medicine of Virginia revised the practice act to allow Licensed Veterinary Technicians to suture skin incisions and wounds. Technicians are now expected to become competent in this skill. Certainly not every veterinarian will expect technicians to suture, but it is a valuable skill. Be sure to check with the state you practice in, as regulations for each state varies.

Suture materials: 

Wounds have been "sutured" for at least 2500 years. In ancient times lacerations were pulled together with hair, leather and small bones. Gut suture (using the intestines of animals) has been used for about 2000 years, and remains popular today. Galen is credited with the first reference to catgut in 175 AD. Natural fibers such as leather, flax, and cotton were improved until synthetic sutures emerged from polymer technology.The perfect suture has not yet been developed. The ideal suture should be: 
A) Strong 
B) Non-reactive in tissue 
C) Non-slipping (hold knots) 
D) Easy to handle 
E) Inexpensive.

Suture materials have been classified in various ways including:

4) non-absorbable (remains strong 60 days+) 
5) monofilament 
6) natural materials
7) absorbable (body will dissolve in <60 days) braided
8) twisted
9) sheathed 
10) synthetics

Common sutures used in veterinary medicine

A) Natural products: 

includes rarely used products like cotton, linen, and kangaroo tendon, as well as the following:
1) Silk: Silk is produced by silkworms and is non-absorbable
a) A very flexible (limp) suture and has no "memory," considered the easiest to handle of all.
b) Used often in neurology and ophthalmology 
2) Chromic gut: Gut made from the intestines of sheep and cattle. It is usually treated with chromic acid to decrease its’ tissue reactivity. Gut comes in various grades depending on the amount of treatment with chromic acid. General information regarding gut sutures:
a) It is very reactive will often cause inflammation at site of use
b) It has a wide range of absorption times (3-40 days) depending upon the amount of treatment with chromic acid.
c) Gut suture is not used to close the skin 
d) It is inexpensive compared to other suture.
e) It swells and extra knots are required to prevent slipping of the knot

B) Metal: 

Stainless steel (an alloy) is sometimes used in skin to prevent the patient from chewing out the suture line
1) It is non-reactive
2) It is difficult to handle and can cause perforations in gloves

C) Some synthetics: 

Very popular for both skin and deep sutures trade name material/source absorption rate use
1) Vetafil / Braunamid :nylon /non-absorbable /skin primarily
2) PDS II:polydioxanone /slow absorption /wide range/skin/eye etc
3) Dexon: polyglyolic acid /absorbable /wide range
4) Vicryl :polyglactin /slow absorption /urinary, intestines
5) Prolene :polypropylene /non-absorbable/ within body cavity

D) Braided versus monofilament suture: 

Braided suture may be a nidus of infection, i.e. bacteria may lodge within the braid and become the source of an infection.

E) Sizing and strength of suture materials: 

1) 6-0 is "hair-like" used for delicate surgery, i.e. ophthalmology and vascular
2) 2-0 & 3-0 is the most commonly used in small animals
3) 2-0 has an approximate tensile strength of 4 lbs.
4) 1 has an approximate tensile strength of 7.5 lbs.
Relative size of different sutures, Suture materials and patterns in animal

F) Packaging of suture:

1) Most veterinarians now use individually wrapped packages of sterile suture, often with a needle already attached (swaged on).
2) Suture is also supplied on a roll inside a container of sterile preservative. Individual lengths of suture can be cut as needed as needed from the roll.
Suture materials and patterns in animal
3) Suture is also supplied on large bulk rolls (non-sterile) various lengths can be cut, packaged and sterilized.

Suture Needles: 

There are over 100 shapes of needles used on different organs or for various procedures. Needles are made of stainless steel and are strong but somewhat flexible and will bend before breaking.Needles are classified by:

A) Shape of needle:

1) Straight
2) Ski or semi-curved, the curve is only at the pointed end of the needle
3) Curved: The curve can range from ¼ to 5/8 circle, the more curved a needle the deeper penetration.
curved a needle, Suture materials and patterns in animal

B) Tip:

 The tip determines how the needle will penetrate tissue. Cutting edge needles have three sharp surfaces which, can penetrate and drive through tough tissue (if sharp). Taper needles have rounded bodies and the tip can range from sharp to fairly blunt. 
The three main types of needle tips are:
1) Cutting: Cutting edge is TOWARDS the skin margin
cutting, Suture materials and patterns in animal
2) Reverse cutting: cutting edge is AWAY from skin margin

Reverse cutting, Suture materials and patterns in animal
3) Taper: Somewhat blunt tip used on easily penetrated tissue.
reverse cutting edge needles often preferred in areas under pressure (heavy Weight):
hint: Compare the "footprint" of a cutting and reverse cutting needle used to close a incision, look at the base of each footprint closely, which one do you think will have a tendency to cut or pull through tissue?

C) The needle body shape (in cross section) Shapes range from rectangular to round.

D) Eye: 

The part of the needle holding the suture
1) Regular or standard, a closed eye, sometimes the suture material is double threaded through the eye so that is doesn’t lip.
2) Spring eye (sometimes termed a French eye): it allows suture to be pulled out with pressure
3) Swaged: The suture is embedded inside the shaft of the needle and creates less drag and tissue trauma and doesn’t slip out of the needle. 
E) Sizing of needles: The larger the number the smaller the needle, i.e. #20 needle smaller than #2. (similar to hypodermic needles)

Suture patterns:

There are numerous patterns developed over the years each for a specific use. Veterinarians develop preferences for certain suture patterns, just as they do particular instruments, types of suture and needles. Some of the basic patterns used frequently in veterinary medicine include:

A) Simple interrupted: 

This is a "safe" pattern. There is less chance of the suture line breaking since individual stitches are placed. It takes more time to place this pattern since there is an individual knot for each stitch. But if one suture is broken the rest of the line usually holds.
Simple interrupted, Suture materials and patterns in animal

Variations on the interrupted pattern include "tension sutures," which are placed away from the wound edge and hold more weight than regular sutures.
Horizontal mattress, Suture materials and patterns in animal 
Vertical mattress, Suture materials and patterns in animal
Tension suture with tubing, Suture materials and patterns in animal

B) Continuous or running pattern: 

Continuous or running pattern, Suture materials and patterns in animal
This suture pattern is fast but less secure since there is just one suture used and it is tied or knotted at each end of the closure, if either knot loosens or the suture breaks the entire line is lost. 

C) The "hidden" sub-cuticular pattern: 

"hidden" sub-cuticular pattern, Suture materials and patterns in animal
This is usually a continuous pattern but an interrupted pattern could be used. It is placed in the dermal and sub-cutaneous layer of skin and is often used in canine castrations or as a strengthening layer below skin sutures.


Without secure knots the best suture pattern would be useless. Many surgeons put extra ties or "throws" on their knots, this only takes a second and often insures that the knot will not slip. Common knots used in veterinary practice include:
A) Square knot: Most commonly used knot.
B) Surgeon’s knot : A double loop is placed before the first throw of the traditional square knot is made.
C) Granny knot: This is actually an incorrectly tied square knot. It looks very similar to the square knot, but doesn’t hold as well.

Surgical staples: 

Staples are made of stainless steel and are applied using staplers. They have been used for surgical purposes for over 100 years and were invented in Russia. Below are some is some basic information regarding surgical staples.
A) They are uniform, non-reactive, and time saving
B) They are expensive (around a $1.00 each)
C) An extractor needed for removal of staples from the skin
D) They are used most often for long incisions, i.e. equine, orthopedics

Ligating clips: 

These can be used in place of internal sutures to "tie off" pedicles (ovarian) or vessels etc. Ligating clips are applied by a special instrument and are stainless steal. They are used internally. They have similar qualities and drawbacks as staples.

Surgical glue or tissue adhesives:

This method of "pulling skin together" has become very popular. Below is some basic information about surgical glue and it’s use.
A) It is used commonly for feline declaws and to close small wounds.
B) The product warning emphasizes not to place adhesive in or on blood because it will not be effective.
C) It dries within seconds and is considered cost effective 
D) A trade name product is Nexaband, which was developed for the veterinary market.

Biological coagulants:

These products promote the formation of blood clots and resulting hemostasis. Most come as sterile powders or as sponges. They are used to stop capillary bleeding within body, i.e. liver seepage, tooth removal.
Examples include Gelfoam and Surgicel, which are gelatin and cellulose based products

Suturing Assignment:

 The on campus laboratory exercise will include suture practice on inanimate objects. Please practice the interrupted and continuous suture patterns before coming to campus. Many materials will simulate skin edges - felt, leather, and rubber tubing can be sutured. Additionally, you can use oranges, bananas, and tomatoes to simulate skin. To practice tying square knots, get a piece of clothesline-type rope. Practice tying knots, practice your hand ties, and instrument ties with this rope as well.
Your mentor will instruct you as to techniques preferred in your practice, but here are a few things to remember:
1) Skin edges should be evenly opposed, with no inversion or puckers.
2) If stitches are placed too far from the incision site, there will be a "gap" or pucker, 
3) If they are placed too close to the edge they are difficult to remove and may pull through the skin.
4) Most suture will cause some inflammation (especially surgical gut) if the suture is placed "tight" a day or two later there will be swelling and discomfort at the site. This can result in the suture line breaking or being chewed out by the patient.
5) Most veterinarians prefer a slightly loose suture to avoid the previous problem.
Wednesday, February 20, 2013
Pregnancy in animals, Diagnosing pregnancy in animal

Pregnancy in animals, Diagnosing pregnancy in animal


the physiological condition of the body females during fruiting, from fertilization to birth or abortion. Pregnant cows (heifers) called pregnant, mares - foals, sheep and goats - suyahnym, pigs - gestation, rabbits - sukrolnosti, bitches - schennymi, cats - kotnoy. There singleton pregnancy - in cows, mares and multiple - in pigs, sheep, rabbits, bitches. Adrift distinguish pregnancy physiological, pathological, and additional false. Duration of pregnancy - the period from fertilization (from last insemination) of females before birth. It depends on the type of animal, maintenance, care and feeding, breed and other factors.

Fruiting period 

in cows - from 270 to 310 days in mares - from 320 to 355 days in pigs - from 110 to 120 days in sheep and goats - from 145 to 160 days in rabbits - from 28 to 33 days in females - from 56 to 72 days in cats - from 56 to 60 days. Diagnosis of pregnancy. Determining pregnancy in animals is of great practical importance, which allows to control fertilization and reproduction. Diagnosis of pregnancy in animals conducted clinical, laboratory techniques and using instruments.


Diagnosing pregnancy

Pregnancy in cow
Diagnosing pregnancy in cows consists of internal and external research.External research has refleksolohycheskoho method, inspection, palpation and auscultation. refleksolohycheskyy method is based on the fact that after fertilization of the 14 th to the 30 th day before the cows (heifers) every day or allowed near the bull-probe for 1 - 1.5 hours in a state hunting animals isolated for insemination. No hunting in fertilized females is one of the signs of pregnancy cows (heifers).On examination established asymmetry of the right and left abdominal wall in the second half of pregnancy, when the right abdominal wall protrudes more (fetal position) than the left. Overview spend the morning before feeding.


Palpation (probing) of the fetus through the abdominal wall to the right (preferably before feeding) is short and fast shocks fist of his right hand in the iliac region. If a cow (heifer) calf, the detectable solid movable body. This method can be applied no earlier than 5 months of pregnancy.
Pregnancy in cow


listening frequency tones (GHG) fetal heart (normal 120-130 in 1 min) and mother (normal 50 -80 to 1 min) performed in the right iliac region cows with 4 - 5 months of pregnancy.
Internal study consists of vaginal, rectal methods and application ultrasonography (USG). They may hold a veterinary specialist or livestock.
Vaginal method is based on a review of the vagina and cervix using vaginal mirror, which is injected into the vagina cows (heifers). When pregnancy felt dryness of vagina, mucus viscosity, the cervical canal is closed, it is a mucous plug. In nestelnyh animals these signs are absent.Rectal method is based on probing through the rectum anatomical and topographical changes in the uterus, ovaries and nourish these organs vessels. Research conducted from 1 - 2 months pregnancy. In the study to use the glove. Cows and heifers examined in the stall or machine.In nestelnyh cows uterus is located in the pelvic cavity on lonnyh bones. Palpation its horns cut. The uterus has a spherical shape, divided mezhrohovoy groove.In tional cows (heifers), depending on the term of pregnancy in the genitals occurring changes in rectal examination characterized by the following features: the first month of pregnancy horn-plodovmestylysche more than 1.5 times the opposite, there is fluctuation in amniotic fluid (80 - 100 ml).In the second month of calf horn 2 times more neberemennoho, amniotic fluid in the uterus 300 - 500 ml, fluctuation progresses. Mezhrohovaya groove almost smoothed. In the third month of horn-plodovmestylysche increased 4-fold compared to non-pregnant, diameter of 12-15 cm, the amniotic fluid 900-1200 ml fluctuation it is well defined in both corners. In the fourth month promatsuyutsya parts fetus platsentomy size of beans, felt vibration (buzzing) average uterine artery in horn-plodovmestilischa, amniotic fluid 3 - 4 liters. In the fifth month of the uterus is lowered into the peritoneal cavity together with the neck. Platsentomy size of a pigeon's egg or acorn. 
Pregnancy in cow
The average uterine artery diameter of 8-10 mm, its vibration increases. Fruit easily detectable. In the sixth month the uterus of the fruit is deep in the abdomen. Platsentomy size of a hen's egg, vibration middle uterine artery horn-plodovmestilischa expressed much the diameter of 10-12 mm. The average uterine artery free horns also vibrates, but weaker than pregnant, its diameter 7 - 9 mm. On the seventh or eighth month well detectable fruit medium severe vibration uterine arteries vibrate both rear uterine artery.For the ninth month of pregnancy characterized by wedging of the fruit in the pelvic cavity, vibration uterine arteries increases, the diameter is 18 - 20 mm. There are harbingers of sorts.


In mares zherebost determine refleksolohycheskyy, vaginal, rectal methods using ultrasound apparatus, as well as inspection, palpation and auscultation of the abdominal wall of the abdominal cavity. refleksolohycheskyy method used from the 5th day after insemination of mares by stallions test probe.Sample spend up to 20-25th day.On examination comparing contours of left and right halves of the abdominal wall. In foals mares are asymmetrical - the left stands more than the right, in the sixth month zherebosty.


Palpation of the fetus carried out in mares left in nizhnepahovoy area using the right hand, pressing his hand. In foals the mares in the abdomen feel the presence of solids (from 5 - 6 months zherebosty).
Pregnancy in mare


listening to fetal heart tones. The frequency of attacks in the fetus should be 130 beats in 1 min, a mare - 20 - 24 strokes in 1 min).In a study of vaginal measured response to the introduction of mares vaginal mirror and ongoing review of vagina and cervical canal. Studies conducted in sterile mirror. In nezhereboho mares mirror easily inserted into the vagina and is easily derived from it. The mucous membrane of the vagina in the normal pale pink and moist. Cervical canal without mucus plug. In foals mares vaginal mucosa and cervix slightly pale, matte, sticky mucus contains gray, mirror inserted and removed from the vagina with difficulty. In a vaginal examination can diagnose 4-8-week zherebost.

Rectal examination

Rectal examination conducted in nursing mares in special machines or in the arena, where you want to fix them securely. The research involves probing the ovaries (from left), uterine horns, body and cervix, uterine ligaments and arteries. When zherebosty in mares in the genitals characteristic changes occur. In the first months of the ovary zherebosty zhereboy horns increased (he luteum), pubescent and not very mobile. Pregnant horn of the uterus and forms a thickened oval bubble the size of a hen's egg, well defined bifurcation horns. In the second month at the base of pregnant horn palpable bladder the size of a goose egg. flyuktuiruet and he dropped outside lonnogo seam, well pronounced asymmetry horns. In the third month of both ovaries lowered to the level of the bottom of the pelvis and close together. Pregnant horn more opposite in 2.5 - 3 times the size of a child's head, flyuktuiruet contains up to 2 liters of amniotic fluid, it detectable fetus. In the fourth month of horn-plodovmestylysche size of an adult human head, hangs in the abdominal cavity and well flyuktuiruet. In the fifth, sixth month of the uterus to the fruit deeply lowered into the abdominal cavity, is well defined vibration middle uterine arteries (diameter of 5 -7 mm). On the seventh or eighth month of the uterus to the fruit is deep in the abdomen, vibration middle uterine arteries both horns increases. At nine or ten months of the fruit easily detectable as it moves in the pelvic cavity, there is a strong vibration (buzzing) secondary uterine and posterior uterine arteries. Eleventh month zherebosty characterized forerunners of childbirth.

Sheep and goats

Suyahnost sheep and goats, swine gestation and diagnosed sukrolnostkrolchih refleksolohycheskyy and external methods, which have the feature for each animal.

Laboratory methods for diagnosis of pregnancy

Laboratory methods for diagnosis of pregnancy is applicable for large and for small animals. These include studies of blood, milk, urine, vaginal and cervical mucus, etc. However, these methods are not widely used in the practice of animal husbandry.Currently using different ultrasonic devices and ultrasound (crawling on the screen), which can be used in large and small animals in early pregnancy, but they are very expensive and require special training.
Friday, February 15, 2013
All Spitz in the house, cage of Spitz

All Spitz in the house, cage of Spitz

All Spitz in the house, cage of Spitz
All Spitz in the house, cage of Spitz

Before purchasing a puppy should prepare a place where he will feel at home. It may just be corner, protected from drafts. Place puppy should not be on the aisle, where it can interfere. Many Spitz, who live in the apartment, very fond of sleeping at the balcony door. If the dog is healthy, she could not prevent it. The litter can be used are sold in pet stores dog baskets, etc., can make their own litter. The main thing is that it can be erased. You can prepare several variables pillowcases to be kept clean. Many Spitz prefer to sleep on the bare floor. In any case, the floor cleaner in your home, the purer your pet's fur.
Spitz in the house

Thursday, February 14, 2013
Types of cows, Most important about cow

Types of cows, Most important about cow

Apparently, cows the most important on Earth Pets and farmanimals. They Occur on tour This wild bull lived in meadows and deciduous forests of Europe and Asia. In the XVII century it disappeared.Homemade cows can be divided into two major groups, the one
 America cow, Types of cows
is high as hump, withers, in other ce there. Humpback cow called zebu. Frequently they are in South and Southeast Asia,were brought to South America and Africa. They bred and bezhorbyh cows, as well as on other continents.Cows and bulls provide people especially meat and milk.they are used for heavy work. Some breeds are focused on milk production, others - meat. Still others give the meat and milk,and are drawing force. In Europe today, you can hardly seethe bull-drawn cart or plow. But in the Third World bulls still play an important role.Habitat people:highlands or plain, climatic
 Europe cow, Types of cows
conditions:the tropics or northern latitude prompted once rights for the withdrawal of different breeds of cows. The most famous breed of cattle in Europe: black, red and white, white, anhelnskaya (Anhlerskaya), Simmental, brown, hintervaldskaya (Black Forest
mountain), red, Charolais, Limousin, hsrefordekaya, Scottish mountain, lonhhornskaya Texas.
 Africa cattle, Types of cows
In black and white cow breeds mass reaches 700 kg, and the mass of the bull 1200 kg. Black and white cow gives a year up to 6000 liters of milk.
 Russia cow, Types of cows
In Russia, an area which in most cases can hardly be called a mountain, and the more mountainous, the most common dairy Yaroslavl, holmohorskaya, Danish Red, Red Steppe, ostfrizskaya and antelnskaya. Annual milk yield of these cows 3,000 4,000 liter fat at about 4%. By the combination of rocks, that simultaneously gives milk and meat are Kostroma, Simmental,Schwyz, red hill-Kotovskogo shorthornov, red and variegated German.
The cardiovascular system of animals, lymphatic system of animal

The cardiovascular system of animals, lymphatic system of animal

Circulatory system consists of three independent parts, closely related topographically and functionally: the circulatory system with a central body - the heart, the lymphatic system, organs hemodialysis and lymphopoiesis.
Circulatory system consists of the heart and the system of blood vessels, which are divided into arteries (blood vessels that carry blood from the heart), veins (blood vessels that carry blood to the heart) and microvasculature.


Heart, cardiovascular system of animals
Heart (cor, kardia) - the central body of blood and lymph, located in the chest cavity from III to VI-VII ribs inside okoloserdechnoy bag (pericardium). Heart is from 0.4 to 1% of body weight. The wall of the heart consists of three layers: the inner (endocardial), middle (infarction) and outer (epicardial). The shape of the heart is a hollow cone-shaped formation, which distinguish top (downward and back) and the base (directed forward and upward). Heart of a four mammals. At the core are two atria (right and left), and most of the heart ventricle form two (left and right), separated by interventricular septum. The muscular layer of the heart (myocardium) in the atria has two layers of striated muscle, and in the ventricles - five layers. Muscles are attached to a special fibrous skeleton of the heart, from four fibrous rings, two of which are located between the atria and ventricles, and two - at the mouth of arterial vessels. The heart has a special valve apparatus which facilitates unidirectional blood flow. This unit has four valves: two stulkovyh - between the atria and ventricles (right tricuspid, left bicuspid or mitral) and two pockets (crescent) The mouth of blood vessels.
Cardiac muscle is characterized by four features:
1-avtomatyya - the ability to contract rhythmically influenced by impulses arising in the very heart muscle, and possible special thanks to the neuromuscular system, which consists of sinoatrial, atrioventricular node and bundle branch block;
2-excitability - impulse excitation of the stimulus;
3-conductivity - spreading the excitement of sinoatrial node around the heart;
4-contractility - the ability to meet the reduction only to single pulse excitation.
cardiovascular system of animals
Activity of the heart is cyclical. In isolated cardiac cycle during contraction (systole), representing 40% of the duration of the cardiac cycle, and during relaxation (diastole) - 60% of the duration of the cardiac cycle.Minute volume flow, the amount of blood ejected ventricle of the heart (right or left) in 1 min (20-30 l of a horse, cattle up to 35 l in small ruminants to 4 liters in dogs to 1 5 l).
Systolic volume flow, the amount of blood ejected by the ventricle of the heart per systole (calculated as a private in the distribution of minute volume on the number of cuts in 1 min). This rate in horses is 850 ml in cattle - 580 ml, small livestock - 55 ml in dogs - 14-25 ml.
Regulation of the heart is provided by neural and hormonal mechanisms. Neural mechanisms of regulation related to the activity of the autonomic nervous system and the presence of some vessels reflex zones (accumulation of chemo-and pressosensornyh receptors).Hormonal mechanisms regulating hormones made ​​by the adrenal medulla and the thyroid gland, and potassium ions (urezhayut and weaken the heart reduction), calcium (stimulates cardiac contraction) and other chemicals.

Blood vessels

Blood vessels, cardiovascular system of animals
Blood vessels are a system of hollow tubes, which are grouped in two circulation - large and small. Vessel wall consists of three layers: the inner (tunica intima), middle (tunica media) and outer (tunica adventicia). In arterial vessels are well developed middle layer, which contains muscle and elastic components. The venous system is two to three times more volume arterial. The biggest development in venous vessels is the outer shell. Small (functional) circulation begins in the right ventricle of the heart common trunk of the pulmonary artery, which is divided into lung parenchyma network of capillaries that pass in the pulmonary veins, which carry blood to the left atrium. Large (systemic) circulation starting from the left ventricle and is composed of the following vessels: aorta, major arteries, capillaries, main veins that form two venous pool (cranial and caudal hollow veins) that carry blood to the right atrium. Aorta begins arc, which departs from the right brachiocephalic trunk that carries blood to the head, neck and right half of the right thoracic limb. Doug continues caudally in the thoracic, abdominal, and middle sacral median tail artery.
venous, cardiovascular system of animals
Aorta at its very commencement of the coronary arteries supplying the heart. Chairman krovosnabzhaetsya two common carotid artery (arteria carotis communis), each of which is divided into the external carotid artery with numerous branches to the head and of the internal carotid artery for blood supply to the brain. The neck is blood on the branches of the subclavian arteries (right and left), which depart from the aortic arch (right brachiocephalic trunk is an extension). Subclavian arteries going to the extremities as underarm, shoulder and median. From the thoracic and abdominal aorta away parietal artery (supplies the wall cavity) and visceral (supplies the internal organs). In thoracic visceral artery depart within the esophageal-bronchial trunk. In abdominal visceral branches is fraught artery (supplies the stomach, spleen, liver, duodenum), cranial mesenteric artery (supplies the thin section and part of the large intestine), caudal mesenteric artery (supplies the descending portion of the colon and rectum), kidney and adrenal arteries and arteries to the gonads (ovarian in females, males Semennikova). Then abdominal artery divided into external iliac (supplies the pelvic limb) and internal iliac (supplies the pelvic cavity) artery. The external iliac artery should be on pelvic limb (on the thigh is called the femur), then goes into the popliteal, at the lower leg in front bolshebertsovuyu which the foot becomes dorsalnuyu artery of the foot.
Venous system creates two vena cava. Cranial vena cava (v. cava cranialis) collects blood from the head (on the jugular veins), neck and thoracic limbs (branches of the subclavian vein), as well as the chest wall (right azygos vein in dogs and horses).
The left azygos vein in pigs and cattle runs directly into the heart. Caudal vena cava (v. cava caudalis) collects blood from the pelvic cavity (internal iliac veins), pelvic limb (external iliac vein) and paired abdominal organs (kidneys, adrenals, gonads). From odd abdominal organs (the gastrointestinal tract) veins empty into the portal vein, and it is in the liver, which produce excellent vascular network of the liver and liver already cleared of toxic products in the blood of hepatic veins enters the caudal vena cava. The colon is located in the pelvic cavity, so most of the blood from it enters the caudal vena cava, bypassing the liver barrier. This feature is used in the administration of soluble substances through the rectum.
Arterial, cardiovascular system of animals
Arterial and venous part of the circulatory system are connected to each other by elements of the microvasculature, which include arterioles prekapillyarov, capillaries, and venules postkapillyary.These elements provide metabolism between blood and tissue and drainage shall deposit function.The movement of blood through the vessels is due to the work of the heart, the elastic-elastic properties of the arterial wall suction as the chest cavity (it is negative pressure), valvular veins (the folds of the inner layer of the vascular wall) and working muscles. Movement of blood vessels (blood flow) is characterized by parameters such as velocity, blood pressure, rhythmic contraction of the arterial wall (pulse). These parameters correspond to the laws of hydrodynamics (including Bernoulli law, which establishes the relationship between the diameter of the vessel, pressure and velocity). Thus, in the arteries, which have a minimum overall diameter, observed maximum pressure and flow velocity.
Regulation of blood flow is reduced to change the diameter of blood vessels that are in constant tone, and the number of circulating blood. This process involves the autonomic nervous system andcardiovascular reflex zones (nervous regulation), and adrenal hormones, pituitary, kidneys and central nervous system neurotransmitters (substances involved in the transmission of nerve impulses).At rest, about half the mass of blood is in the blood depots: 20% in liver, 16% in spleen and 10% in the subcutaneous tissue.

lymphatic system

lymphatic system, cardiovascular system of animals
The lymphatic system is an auxiliary education venous system of the body and performs the following functions:
1-immune (associated with the activity of lymphocytes), drainage (removal of excess fluid from the tissues);
2-barrier-filtration (delay in lymph node tissues of toxins, bacteria, viruses and foreign particles);
3-transport (transport protein, some vitamins, fat).
The structure of the lymphatic system consists of lymph capillaries, vessels, nodes, collectors, trunks and ducts. Lymph - a colorless transparent liquid, similar in chemical composition to blood plasma. It contains proteins (less than in the blood), nitrogenous substances, glucose, salt, enzymes, hormones, vitamins and antibodies. In lymph no red blood cells and platelets, but it is able to coagulate due to the presence of fibrinogen and several other clotting factors. For lymphatic capillaries typical blind beginning in tissues. Association, they form the lymphatic heart. Lymphatic vessels are equipped with valves (like the valves in the veins), so that they have expansion and contraction. Lymph nodes are bean-shaped form and may be superficial and deep. Group lymph nodes that collect lymph from the total body surface, forming limfotsentr. The most important is limfotsentrami parotid (collects lymph from the brain skull), mandibular (collects lymph from the front of the skull), retropharyngeal (regionarny is for the whole head), superficial and deep neck (collect lymph from the neck), mediastinum (regionarny for thoracic ), axillary (collects lymph from the thoracic limbs), groin (collects lymph from the abdominal wall and pelvic limbs), mesenteric, and abdominal (regional to the abdominal cavity). The major lymphatic collectors have thoracic lymph duct (collects lymph from 3/4 of the body except the right half of the head, neck, right thoracic limb and the right half of the chest wall) right lymphatic duct (collects lymph from the right half of the head, neck, right thoracic limb and the right half of the chest wall). Both ducts open into kranyalnuyu vena cava. Thus the whole lymph collected in kranyalnuyu vena cava. In the process of moving lymph vessels involved but sticks feature thoracic cavity, the pressure difference in the lymph capillaries and ducts, muscles of the body, particularly the diaphragm, rhythmic contraction of lymph vessels and pulsation thoracic duct. Innervated lymph elements sympathetic nerve fibers, and the speed of movement of lymph varies reflex.
lymphatic system, cardiovascular system of animals
Bodies hemo-lymphopoiesis and perform production of blood cells and thus participate in the maintenance of homeostasis and immune response. Stroma for all of this group is reticular tissue and parenchyma - lymphoid tissue. All bodies develop early in the course of individual development and the birth of the animal is already fully formed, but after birth are early involution (regression). Depending on the topography (location), functions and structure of all the organs of hemo-lymphopoiesis and be divided into central and peripheral. In central include bone marrow and thymus (thymus). These bodies formed cells that can differentiate cells own body against foreign (antihennezavisimoe differentiation).They are always located in well-protected areas of the body (bone marrow, thymus in the chest cavity on the chest).In peripheral organs hemo-lymphopoiesis and related lymph nodes, spleen, lymphoid formation gastrointestinal (tonsils, Peyyerovyh plaques, solitary follicles of the intestine), respiratory and urinary channels. All these bodies are located towards the possible introduction of infection or passing atypical substances produced in the body.
Wednesday, February 13, 2013
The digestive apparatus of animals, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal

The digestive apparatus of animals, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal

Digestive apparatus a set of institutions guaranteeing the digestive process,feed conversion by physical and chemical treatment to a more simple nutrients that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body.Thus, the digestive organs perform the following functions: secretory (working digestive glands), motor (reception food, his mixing and promotion in the digestive tract), suction (performed mucous membrane and generates the blood water and nutrients split), secretory (emphasis Some metabolic products - pigments, urea, mineral and accidentally substances).

Anatomically digestive apparatus

digestive system of cow,  Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
Anatomically digestive apparatus is divided into the digestive canal (canalis alimentarius) and cancer (glandulae), located outside the channel (zastinni gland). Some parts of the alimentary canal wall containing glandular formation (parietal gland).
Alimentary canal lined inside mucosa pale pink. This layer has a different structure, due to the functional purpose of different parts of the channel. In the connective tissue on the mucosa in some lymphoid organs is education, serve a protective function, which may take the form of single follicles (in the jejunum), clusters of follicles - Peyyerovi plaques (in the ileum) or tonsils (component okolohlotochnoe lymphoid ring). In the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract in its entirety is the endocrine cells. Muscle membrane wall of the alimentary canal provides peristalsis and promote content. Submucosa and tunica muscularis abundantly provided with nerve endings that contribute to the regulation of all functional items.Alimentary canal origin is divided into primary and tulovyschnoy intestine (intestinal tube). The Main intestine include oral cavity and pharynx.

Oral cavity 

oral cavity,  Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
(cavum oris) is a complex organ that includes the lips, cheeks, hard and soft palate, tongue (the mucosa contains mechanical and gustatory papillae and a muscular system), gums and teeth Teeth are highly species diversity.
According to the structure they are divided into dlinnokoronkovye (all teeth horse and cattle molars) and korotkokoronkovye (teeth carnivores, omnivores, cutters cattle) on location - on incisors (hooks, medium and loose), canines, premolars and molars, to change - for milk and permanent, in the form of chewing surfaces - on gears (in prey), lumpy (in omnivores) lunchatye (in cattle) and folded (in horses).Maximum number of teeth is in pigs - 44, dogs 42, 36-40 horses in cattle 32. A tooth consists of a modified bone - dentin, which is the protruding part of the tooth is covered with enamel, and the root of - cement. In the mouth opens three pairs of large zastinnyh glands: parotid, mandibular and sublingual that secrete saliva.
cattle teeth, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal


Saliva is composed of water, protein components and mineral salts in saliva and pigs are also enzymes (amylase and Maltase), break down starch. Salivation in animals is reflexively regulated and medulla oblongata.
skull, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal


pharynx is the tubular body in which the intersection of digestive and respiratory tracts. Thus pharynx associated with oral, nasal cavity, middle ear, larynx and esophagus. It includes two sections: respiratory (nasopharynx) and digestive (oropharynx).
tulovyschnaya intestine (intestinal tube) is divided into three sections: the front (esophagus and stomach), middle (small intestine) and posterior (thick intestine).


Anatomically digestive apparatus of rabbit
(oesophagus) is a body for the promotion of food in the stomach and consists of three parts: cervical, thoracic and abdominal. The esophagus passes through the diaphragm in the plane IX edges (the horses - XII).


Stomach (gaster, ventriculus, stomachus) is an extension of the foregut. The stomach is divided into four parts: esophagus (devoid of glands), cardiac (at the confluence of the esophagus contains cardiac glands), fundus or bottom (contains fundic glands) and pyloric (place of transition of the stomach into the duodenum contains pylorycheskye gland). The development of the stomach underlying classification stomachs.
Anatomically digestive apparatus of goat
In dogs esophageal part of the stomach is not developed (intestinal type stomach), stomach is left hypochondrium (IX-XII rib) and the xiphoid cartilage. Pigs esophageal part of the stomach is negligible (stomach esophageal-intestinal type). Appears stomach in the left upper quadrant (XI-XII rib) and in the xiphoid cartilage. Horses stomach esophageal-intestinal type, esophageal portion is well developed and forms a blind sac (XIV-XV rib), located in the left upper quadrant stomach.In cattle stomach multichamber esophageal-intestinal type. Esophageal forms part three of the four divisions multichamber stomach: rumen (rumen), which is located to the left of VI rib to enter the pelvic cavity, net (reticulum) - lies in the xiphoid cartilage in the plane VI-VII ribs; book (omasum) - is in the right upper quadrant in the plane VII-IX edges 
Anatomically digestive apparatus of horse 
From the esophagus, which empties into a scar in his vestibule, the book goes trough mesh (esophageal groove), he goes on the grid right and partially reduced with age. This trough is involved in the processes of chewing, belching and reception of milk in the calf. Fourth Department multichamber stomach of cattle called rennet (abomasum). He is the true stomach that contains cancer, and is in the xiphoid cartilage right in the plane XI-XII ribs. In adult animals, the largest department multichamber stomach is scar less - according abomasum, book and mesh. In small ruminants smallest division is not mesh, and a book. In young animals that feed on milk, abomasum size exceeds scar. The glandular portion of the stomach (cardiac, fundic and pyloric) identifies gastric juice. This liquid acid reaction, consisting of water, enzymes (pepsin, hastriksin, hymozyna and lipase), mineral salts and hydrochloric acid. Most enzymes involved in the breakdown of proteins, and lipase breaks down fats to glycerol and fatty acids. Gastric juice secreted in two phases: reflex (starts before feeding) and humoral (neurochemical, under the influence of chemical irritants formed during digestion: food digestion and hormones released by the stomach).


intestine, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
long digestive tube that exceeds the length of the body in cattle in 20 - 25 times in pigs 15 times in horses is 10-12 times, and carnivores in 3.5 - 5 times and therefore has petlystoy course. Colon has a number of adaptations that increase its surface area, which include mucosal folds, villi, covered kaemchatye epithelium and crypts.
Morphologically intestine is divided into narrowed and long thin section(duodenum, skinny and ileum) and less long and thick expanded Department (blind, colon and rectum).This division is on probation. In the small intestine there is further digestion of nutrients under the influence of intestinal, pancreatic juice and bile.Pancreatic juice and bile are allocated according pancreas and liver ducts that open into the duodenum.


the largest digestive gland, has equity structure.All kinds of animals can distinguish right and left lobe of the liver. In the right lobe in all animals (except horses, camels and reindeer) is located gallbladder - a reservoir for temporary storage of bile, because it produced more than needed for digestion.Equity structure of the liver is most pronounced in dogs and pigs, and the least - in cattle. The liver makes bile ducts system, which opens into the duodenum .
liver, Anatomically digestive apparatus in animal
The liver performs except the digestive barrier (protective) function, purifying blood deponyruyuschuyu function (it creates a supply of glycogen deposition occurs and blood), is involved in all kinds of metabolic processes of thermoregulation, and the embryonic period - and in the blood.Proteins are split trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase secreted by the pancreas and activated by enzymes of intestinal juice. Fats split lipase, and carbohydrates - Maltase, saharazoy and laktazoy (they are part of the intestinal juice). Bile, secreted by the liver, is involved in the emulsification of fats and thereby facilitates digestion. Secretion of these enzymes is influenced by neural and humoral regulation.Enormous role in humoral regulation belongs hormones secreted by the intestine. Small intestine provides not only the process of digestion (a huge role in this process is given wall digestion), but the process of absorption of nutrients. Parietal digestion contributes to the structure of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, which is represented kaemchatye epithelium.


The digestive apparatus of animals
the physiological process that occurs as a result of intense activity of the intestinal mucosa.The process of absorption is the result of filtering, diffusion and osmosis. Absorption helps reduce intestinal villi, which in this case act as a pump. In the large intestine there are absorption of water, the formation of feces and their allocation. The final section of thick section (rectum) ends with anal canal that opens the anus, which has two sphincter: exterior of the striated muscles of the inner and smooth.


(intestinum duodenum) in all animals located in the right upper quadrant, which is adjacent to the liver, and followed to the level of the right kidney and at about mid-back passes from right to left and back to the liver.


(intestinum jejunum) in pigs and dogs is the ventral part of the abdominal cavity (the xiphoid cartilage, umbilical region, partly pubic, hypochondrium, podvzdohi and pahy). In cattle it is the right of these areas. Horses placed in the left podvzdohe between dorsal and ventral provisions large colon.


(intestinum ileum) in all animals placed in the right podvzdohe and goes from left to right podvzdoha.


large intestine, The digestive apparatus of animals
(intestinum caecum) in dogs is in the lumbar region (II-IV lumbar vertebrae) in cattle guts reason lies right in the lumbar region and podvzdohe and the tip pointing towards the pelvis. In pigs reason cecum is located on the left in the lumbar region, the tip pointing towards the pelvis. In the horse cecum attains a large size and consists of the head (in the right podvzdohe), the body (in the groin and upper quadrant) and the top (in the xiphoid cartilage).


(intestinum colon) in dogs is part dorsalnuyu both podvzdohov. Pigs form a cone, the base of which lies in the left podvzdohe and leadership in adult animals in the umbilical region, and the piglets to six months of age in the xiphoid cartilage. In cattle drive (labyrinth) of the colon is the right podvzdohe.In the horse it is a large colon in a double horseshoe (takes both podvzdoha, hypochondrium and the xiphoid cartilage, partly groin) and small colon, which lies with small loops (in the left podvzdohe and between the provisions of a large colon).


(intestinum rectum) in all animals located in the pelvic cavity in the vertebral column.


liver, The digestive apparatus of animals
lies in the right upper quadrant, without going beyond the last rib. In all animals, except pigs in contact with the right kidney. In horses, pigs and dogs goes to the left hypochondrium.
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